"Ash tree above the mist" by Alasdair Thomson ©


I would like to thank Dr. Rodrigo Mercader of Michigan State University for his extremely valuable insight on Emerald Ash Borer as well as Robin Usborne  from the emeraldashborer.info website for allowing the use of their vast selection of images of EAB.

Literature Cited

Bauer, Leah S., Juli R. Gould, and Jian Duan. "Biological Control of the Emerald Ash Borer - EAB - Invasive Species - Forest Disturbance Processes." Biological Control of the Emerald Ash Borer. Forest Service. <http://nrs.fs.fed.us/disturbance/invasive_species/eab/control_management/biological_control/>.

"Beauveria Bassiana Strain GHA (128924) Fact Sheet | Pesticides | US EPA." US Environmental Protection Agency. Nov. 1999. <http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/biopesticides/ingredients/factsheets/factsheet_128924.htm>.

"How Do I Know If My Trees Have EAB?" Emerald Ash Borer Resource Guide - Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. <http://www.emeraldashborer.wi.gov/article.jsp?topicid=18>.

Kovacs, Kent F., Robert G. Haight, Deborah G. McCullough, Rodrigo M. Mercador, Nathan W. Siegert, and Andrew M. Liebhold. "Cost of Potential Emerald Ash Borer Damage in U.S. Communities, 2009-2019." Ecological Economics 69.3 (2010): 569-78. Science Direct.

Liu, Houping, and Leah S. Bauer. "Microbial Control of Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus Planipennis." Microbial Control of Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus Planipennis 45 (2008): 124-32. Science Direct.

United States. United States Department of Agriculture. APHIS. Biological Control of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus Planipennis). By Juli R. Gould and Leah Bauer. 2007. Web. <http://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/emerald_ash_b/downloads/eab-biocontrol.pdf>.

United States. United States Department of Agriculture. Plant Protection and Quarantine. Proposed Release of Three Parasitoids for TheBiological Control of the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus Planipennis) in the Continental United States Environmental Assessment. By Juli Gould. 2007.

United States. USDA Forest Services. North Central Research Station. Host Range of Emerald Ash Borer. By Robert A. Haack, Toby R. Petrice, Deborah L. Miller, Leah S. Bauer, and Nathan M. Schiff. USDA Forest Service. <http://www.emeraldashborer.info/files/hostrange.pdf>.

Wang, X. Y., Z. Q. Yang, Juli R. Gould, and Jian-Hai Ma. "Host-seeking Behavior and Parasitism by Spathius Agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a Parasitoid of the Emerald Ash Borer." Biological Control 52.1 (2009): 24-29. Science Direct.