Where does Cryptosporidium parvum Live?

Cryptosporidium parvum is most commonly found in many public water supplies. This has raised great concern from the medical, public health, and water treatment personals (Sterling & Marshall, 2006). Outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis, caused by this parasitic pathogen, have lead to increased testing for contamination throughout the United States (Spencer & Guan, 2004). However, the United States is not the only place where this parasitic pathogen is found. Cryptosporidiosis accounts for around 20% of all diarrheal cases in young children of developing countries which can be fatal for those with AIDS and cause cognitive developmental problems (Putignani & Menichella, 2010). Therefore, it is shown that understanding and distinguishing the kind of environments Cryptosporidium parvum thrive in has huge global health concern.
It has also been recognized that C. parvum may thrive better in different seasons. First, it is important to recognize that the source of C.Parvum may be fecal waste from sheep, horses, cattle, and other animals (Xiao et. al, 2004). A season with more rainfall can help the C. parvum contaminate public water supply, streams, or lakes. This has lead to questions about how water supply should be controlled. A common way to treat water has been through chlorine. However, it has been shown that regular chlorine treatments are not enough to kill C. parvum. In fact, the parasite is resistant to many chemical disinfectants (Carpenter et. al., 1999). It has also been found, that it can survive up to eight weeks in -5 degree celcius water tempreatures and it can reamin active on wet stainless steel (NZFSA, 2010). Therefore, new ways to treat C. parvum will have to be introduced. C. parvum in intestine from http://www.vet.uga.edu/ivcvm/courses/vpat5215/digestive/week04/enteric/entericeight.htm
    Cryptosporidium parvum is commonly found in the intestines of humans and many other animals. In the intestine, the sporophytes might live along the microvilli, and the other cells against the cell membranes of the intestine. The oocysts will exist in a free living form not only in the digestive tract, but in fecal matter as previously mentioned. It can also be spread from person to person, animals to person, and animals to animals (Borowski, 2009). So in conclusion, the an organism's body is an ideal environment for C. parvum, but it also is within our public water system and with fecal matter from agriculture. Further research on this parasite’s habitat will allow us to provide better treatments and decrease the number of cases of cryptosporidiosis.

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