Bibliography and Definitions
photograph by the Pete and Barb
Species: (Eudyptes Chlorophyes)
The story behind the
All organisms found in the Domain Eukarya
are multi-cellular with a nuclear organelle, as are the Eudyptes
chorolphyes. The Kingdom Animilia contains multi-celluar organisms
which ingest other organisms for food, making them heterotrophic, a
trait of the Macaroni Penguins.
The Phylum Chordata contains protochordates and vertebrates,
distinguished by a dorsal, and hollow nerve cord. These penguins
are also apart of the Class Aves, which contains strictly birds.
The Order Sphenisciformes contains penguins that are mainly in the S
hemisphere chiefly in the Antarctic. The family Spheniscidae compromises
all existing Penguins known today. The genus Eudyptes means
"beautiful diver" and consists of penguins that have yellow crest
feathers. All those part of the Species Macaroni, (Eudyptes
Chorolphyes), are Macaroni
Penguins and consist of the traits that are further explained on this
page, and the ones linked.
Macaroni Penguins and Its Closely
Phylogenetic Tree Provided by:
Brown, Joseph W. 2007. Spenisciformes.Spheniscidae.
Penguins. Version 21 March 2007(temporary.
in The Tree of Life Project.
photograph by Pete and Barb
Habitat and Geography:
Macaroni Penguins spend most of
their time at sea in the Arctic waters, unless the breeding season is
upon them. Between the months of September and November, this
species of penguins can be found on 50 known sites in the South Atlantic
and South Indian Oceans, with one breeding site on the Antarctic
Peninsula. Some of the main breeding islands include Crozet,
Heard, McDonald, Kervguelen, and South Georgia. Some have also been
found off the Southern tips of South Africa and South America.
During the winter months, penguins that are in the South migrate to the
warmer North latitudes. Wanderers have been found as far as South
Africa. There is not much known about the lifestyle of Macaroni
Penguins while at sea, for most of the research that has been done has
been at or around the breeding sites.
Macaroni penguins generally
return to their breeding sites between the months of September and
November each year, with the males arriving before the females.
penguins are monogamous.
They breed in colonies on rocky coasts and low cliffs, with
nesting densities ranging from .7 to 1.4 nests per square inch.
The nests are as simple as a
scrape in the ground. A mature female is able to reproduce at
around the age of 5, but the male waits until the age of 6.
Courting is done by the male pumping his heart several
times, with his head upwards and flippers outwards, and projecting a harsh,
loud, braying sound.
Once the mate is picked, two eggs are laid, but one is usually bigger
than the other, and only one will hatch. The first egg that is
laid is smaller and weaker than the second and is typically lost to
predators and fights that may occur within the breeding colonies.
If both eggs are lost, these penguins do not relay. Incubation of
the egg is taken in three shifts; about a total of thirty-three to thirty-seven days. The first shift, which lasts
about 8-12 days, is usually done by both the male and female. The 2nd
shift, which lasts about 12-14 days, is commonly done by the male, while
the female forages at sea. During this time, the egg usually
hatches. For the third shift, the male goes to
forage at sea, while the
female cares for the young penguin. Within 24 days of hatching,
the young penguin forms a outer covering known as a
This layer allows the penguin to maintain its body heat while it is away
from the nest, allowing both parents to forage at sea. When the
parents are away at sea, the young penguins of the colony form
little huddles known as
for extra warmth. Within
eleven weeks, the young penguin will develop a waterproof plumage and
fledge, but still lack the crests that Macaroni Penguins are known for.
The parent penguins will continue to feed the baby penguin every one to
two days until the young penguin is ready to go out on their own.
photograph by Mike Bingham
Macaroni Breeding Sites in S