Works Cited


Experiments were done to see how wolves are doing in
 different parts of the nation.  One was done
 in the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska and the other
 in Northeastern Minnesota.  They both focused on different
 aspects of the Gray wolf, but had similar findings especially when
 it came to the common prey of the wolves.  From both
 experiments the common prey was moose no matter
 what the other prey populations were doing, as in
 when the moose population went down the the deer
 population was on the rise the wolves
 would still prey on the moose over deer.

Kenai Peninsula, Alaska
- Re-established in the 1960's mainly through
 natural immigration (Wolves of the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska pg. 6).
- The average weight of males was 43.9 kgs. and the
 average weight of females was 34.2 kgs. (pg. 14).
- The main color was between black and gray, the band
 markings were darker than the rest of the
fur, the bellies and flanks were in general
 lighter than the rest of the body (pg. 15).
- The average interval between kills for a pack
 larger than two wolves was 4.7 days (pg. 20).
-This figures out to be .12kg/kg wolf/day
 with a range of .09-.19 kg/kg wolf/day (pg. 20).
-During the summer months wolves had a higher
 tendency to re-visit old kills (pg. 20).
-The average territory size in Alaska was 638 kmē (pg. 24).
-Wolf mortality was mainly due to hunters and trappers than anything else (pg. 30).
- The only other animal besides humans that posed any type of  threat was bears (pg. 38).
- However there was small interaction between the two species; in cases of interaction the wolves deferred to brown bears more than black bears (pg. 38).

Northeastern Minnesota
-There was one lone wolf in this research project, who traveled with
 four different territories, making her territory about 192 kmē in a triangular shape (Ecology of the Timber Wolf in Northeastern Minnesota pg. 21).
-Of the wolves caught in this area 83% of the females showed
 signs of lactation during the spring and summer (pg. 26).
- 51 of the mortalities, either tagged or untagged, were caused by humans (pg. 29).
- Of those mortalities 31% were pups (pg. 30).
- Four factors were found to be population regulators in the wolf
 population: Territoriality, stress, food supply, and human exploitation (pg. 33).
- Territoriality is the biggest factor when it comes to population regulation but the effects are not always obvious.  The shape of the territory is shaped by population pressures and environmental resources but this minimally affected the wolves in this area (pg. 34).
- Stress has three levels: individual, pack, and population.  It is thought that the endocrine system can play a part in stress in the individual.  Other factors of stress would be social interactions between ranks, epideictic displays, and inner pack stress during mating season caused my several potentially fertile females (pg. 34-35).
- Food supply, the less food found in the territory leads to a smaller pack size, which also causes more stress for those that are there that do not have a pack (pg. 35).