Interactions with Other Species!
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Text Box: 	The Great White Shark is an apex predator, meaning that it is at the top of the food chain with very few predators. Actually, the only real predators that an adult Great White could come across would be Killer Whales (Orcinus orca), and other larger sharks. As mentioned before in the ‘Nutrition’ section of the site, the Great White has many parasites occupying its body. Two specific examples of parasites would be Pandarus sinuatus and Pandarus smithii, which are copepods that reside on the body surface of the Great White. This shark definitely has predatory interactions with other species, specifically the pinnipeds (see ‘Nutrition’ section). The Great White is always on the hunt for them since pinnipeds are their main food source (Martins, 2008).  
Text Box: 	There are a couple organisms that have relationships with the Great White. One species of fish that the Great White shares a mutualism with is the Naucrates ductor or the pilotfish. This particular fish was given the name ‘pilot’ because it is known to frequently accompany sharks and actually leads the shark. This fish is believed to show the Great White where the most fish are located and also to lead the shark to its favorite places to feed. So because of the services of the pilotfish presents the shark with, and the protection the fish gets from the shark, the two species live in harmony (Budker, 1971)!

	The Great White is also involved in a commensal relationship with the Echeneis naucrates, or remora. The remora has an unusual evolutionary modification where the dorsal fin was used to form a sucker, which is what attaches the remora to their host. The relationship between remoras and Great Whites are commensal because neither of them really benefit from the relationship. The remora utilizes the shark for easy transportation, and sometimes it accidently feed on food fragments dropped by the shark (Budker, 1971).



Text Box: 	One of the first things that the general public thinks about when you mention a Great White Shark is shark attacks on humans. The Great White holds the title as the most dangerous species of shark because it has more attacks on humans than any other kind of shark (Greenberg, 1981). Still, it is reported that people are attacked less by sharks in a year than people are injured or killed by bee stings, snake bites, or even lighting. Even though they are very dangerous to humans in the water, they are not the mindless killers like they are depicted to be in movies, books, and other places. Actually, they are dangerous because we as humans are out of our element in the water, so they look at us as an easy meal. Also, they might just think a human is invading their territory, which explains ‘single-bite’ shark attacks, where the victim actually survives (ICHTHOS, 2002).
Text Box: 	Here are a few precautions to take if you are ever swimming, scuba diving, or surfing in an oceanic area known to house Great White Sharks:

1) 	Never swim alone, and never isolate yourself 	from a group of others in the water.
2)	Leave the water immediately if there is a 		shark seen.
3)	Sharks are attracted by blood, so if there is any 	blood in the water near you, it is a threat.
4)	Avoid swimming in murky waters, especially near 	drop offs or in channels.
5)	If you are diving from a boat, observe the 		area first because sharks tend to surface 		repeatedly.
6)	Avoid swimming far offshore at night.

Photo by Carl Roessler

Photo by Carl Roessler