Common Chameleon - BIO 203
Interactions With Other Species

The chameleon maintains predatory relationships with its prey: arachnids and insects. These belong to the groups Diptera, Hymenoptera, Orthoptera, and Heteroptera and the chameleons consume them at different times of the year (Pieguezuelos et al. 2013). For example, in summer and fall, they consume the biggest type, Orthoptera, more than in the spring. Chameleons also consume grasshoppers (Choealtis conspersa), European Honey Bees (Apis mellifera), and Scolopendra cingulata, members of the phylum arthropoda.  In other words if there is a large abundance of grasshoppers in the area, chameleons will feed on more grasshoppers (Pieguezuelos et al. 2013). Additionally, the Chamaeleo chamaeleon feeds on plant material. This organism obtains food through two distinct strategies; they both actively forage for food, but also utilize the sit-and-wait method, unrolling their long tongues to trap prey (Ibrahim 2013). This coincides with the fact that most of the chameleon prey is mobile which is very common with sit-and-wait predators and the fact that the majority of the prey that chameleons consume are flying insects (Pieguezuelos et al. 2013). Chameleons must be alert and aware of the potential attack by avian predators, using their independently moving eyes to identify such predators (Lustig et al. 2012).  In addition avian predators, adult chameleons have a cannibalistic tendency to prey upon juvenile chameleons and this occurs despite the size of the adult chameleon. To combat this, the juvenile chameleons practice concealment and fleeing and as a result the adult chameleons occupy a different habitat from the juveniles (Keren-Rotem et al. 2006).

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