~It is known that other insect parisitoids use neuromodulators to produce behavioral changes in their hosts (Eberhard, 2001). Neuromodulators may act either presynaptically or postsynaptically to influence neurotransmitter activities (Marieb et. al, 2010).

~The Hymenoepimecis argyraphaga is the only South American wasp species known to have uniformly black wings (Gauld, 2000). Shown below is a wasp of the Hymenoptera order also with a black appearance.

Photo courtesy of: Ton Rulkens

~H. argyraphaga is the only wasp known to partake in infanticide by removing and killing the other larvae that might be found due to previous attacks (Eberhard, 2000).

~Only eighteen species of Hymenoepimecis are known to exist (Gauld, 2000).

What and who I referred to...