Form & Function
Habitat & Geography
Life & Reproduction
Interesting Facts
Contact Us

Alt, G. L. 1982. Reproductive biology of Pennsylvania's black bear. Pennsylvania Game News 53, 9-15.

Amstrup, S. C. and J. J. Beecham. 1976. Activity patterns of radio-collared black bears in Idaho.  Journal of Wildlife Management 40:340–348.

Ballard, W. B., S. D. Miller and J. S. Whitman, 1990. Brown and black bear predation on moose in south-central Alaska. Alces 26, 1–8.

Barnes Jr., V. B. 1989. The influence of salmon on availability of movements and range of brown bears on southwest Kodiak Island. International Conference on Bear Research and Management 8, 305–313.

Bartareau, T. M., N. C. Larter, D. H. Cluff and E. H. Leone. 2012. Body condition and growth dynamics of American black bears in northern Canada. International Association for Bear Research and Management 23(1):12-20.

Bear medicine 2006.  <>.  Accessed 12 November 2013.

Bear medicine 2008.  <>.  Accessed 12 November 2013.

Bear parts trade.  <>.  Accessed 12 November 2013.

Black Bear Ursus americanus 1996.  <>.  Accessed 20 September 2013.

Bridges, A. S, Fox, J. A, Olfenbuttel, C, and Vaughan, M. R.  2004.  American Black Bear denning behavior: observations and applications using remote photography.  Wildlife Society Bulletin 32:188 - 193.

Bridges, A. S, Vaughan, M. R, and Fox, J. A. 2011.  American Black Bear estrus and parturition in the Alleghany Mountains of Virginia.  URSUS 22:1-8.

Bridges, A. S, Vaughan, M. R, and Fox, J. A. 2011.  Reproductive Ecology of American Black Bears in the Alleghany Mountains of Virginia, USA.  Journal of Wildlife Management 75:1137-1144.

Brito, L. F. C., P. L. Sertich, G. B. Stull, W. Rives and M. Knobbe. 2010. Sperm ultrustructure, morphometry, and abnormal morphology in American black bears (Ursus americanus). Theriogenology 74:1403-1413.

Campbell, N. A, Reece, J. B, Urry, L. A, Cain, M. L, Wasserman, S. A, Minorsky, P. V, and Jackson, R. B. 2009. Biology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, San Frasisco, California, USA.

Cherokee myths and legends of the Black Bear 1996. <>. Accessed 12 November 2013.

Costello, C. M, Creel, S. R, Kalinowski, S. T, Vu, N. V, and Quigley, H. B.  2009.  Determinants of male reproductive success in American Black Bears.  Behavioral Ecology ad Sociobiology 64:125-134.

Day, S. M. 1997. Aspects of Newfoundland black bear (Ursus americanus hamiltoni) food habits and habitat use in human-influenced environments. M.S. thesis, Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova             Scotia, Canada.

Ecosystem Classification Group. 2007. Ecological Regions of the Northwest Territories – Taiga Plains.  Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Government of Northwest Territories, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada.

Eiler, J. H, Wathen, G, and Pelton, M. R.  1989. Reproduction in Black Bears in the Southern Applachian Mountains.  The Journal of Wildlife Management 53:353 - 360.

Evans, A. R., G. P. Wilson, M. Fortelius and J. Jernvall. 2007. High-level similarity of dentitions in carnivorans and rodents. Nature 445:78–81.

Faries, K. M., T. V. Kristensen, J. Beringer, J. D. Clark, D. J. White and L. S. Eggert. 2013. Origins and genetic structure of black bears in the interior highlands of North America. Journal of Mammalogy 94(2):369-377.

Fecske, D. M., R. E. Barry, F. L. Precht, H. B. Quigley, S. L. Bittner and T. Webster. 2002. Habitat use by female black bears in western Maryland. Southeastern Naturalist 1:77–92.

Franklin, J. F. and C. T. Dyrness. 1973. Natural vegetation of Oregon and Washington. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-8, Portland, Oregon 417.

Friscia, A. R., B. Van Valkenburgh and A. R. Biknevicius. 2007. An eco-morphological analysis of extant small carnivorans. Journal of Zoology 272:82–100.

Garneau, D. E. 2005. Spatio-temporal dynamics of a multiple- predator single-prey system. Ph.D. Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania, USA.

Garrison, E. P., J. W. McCown, M. A. Barrett and M. K. Oli. 2012. Denning ecology of Florida black bears in north-central Florida. Southeastern Naturalist 11(3):517-528.

Gende, S. M., T. P. Quinn and M. F. Willson. 2001. Consumption choice by bears feeding on salmon. Oecologia 127:372-382.

Goodrich, J. M. and J. Berger. 1994. Winter recreation and hibernating black bears Ursus americanus.  Biologoical Conservation 67:105-110.

Haroldson, M. A., M. A. Ternent, K. A. Gunther and C. C. Schwartz. 2002. Grizzly bear denning chronology and movements in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem. Ursus 13, 29–37.

Hayes, S. G. and M. R. Pelton. 1994. Habitat characteristics of female black bear dens in northwestern Arkansas. Bears: Their Biology and Management 9:411–418.

Herrero, S. 1978. A comparison of some features of the evolution, ecology and behavior of black and grizzly/brown bears. Carnivore 1, 7–17.

Iaizzo, P. A., T. G. Laske, H. J. Harlow, C. B. McClay and D. L. Garshelis. 2012. Wound healing during hibernation by black bears (Ursus americanus) in the wild: elicitation of reduced scar formation. Integrative Zoology 7:48-60.

Kordek, W. S. and J. S. Lindzey. 1980. Preliminary analyses of female reproductive tracts from             Pennsylvania black bears. International Conference on Bear Research and Management 4, 159-161.

Kovach, A. I. and R. A. Powell. 2003. Effects of body size on male mating tactics and paternity in black bears, Ursus americanus. Canadian Journal of Zoology 81:1257-1268.

Larivie`re, S. 2001. Ursus americanus. Mammal Species 647:1–11.

Lyons, A. L., W. L. Gaines and C. Servheen. 2003. Black bear resource selection in the northeast             Cascades, Washington. Biological Conservation 113:55–62.

MacArthur, R. A., Johnston, R. H. and V. Geist. 1979. Factors influencing heart rate in free-ranging bighorn sheep: a physiological approach to the study of wildlife harassment. Canadian Journal of Zoology 57, 2010-21.

Mahoney, S. P., J. A. Virgil and K. Mawhinney. 2001. Potential mechanisms of phenotypic divergence in body size between Newfoundland and mainland black bear populations. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79:1650-Meiri, S., T. Dayan and D. Simberloff. 2005. Variability and correlations in carnivore crania and dentition. Functional Ecology 19:337–343.

Miller, E. H., S. P. Mahoney, M. L. Kennedy and P. K. Kennedy. 2009. Variation, sexual dimorphism, and allometry in molar size of the black bear. Journal of Mammalogy 90(2):491-503.

Miller, S. D. 1990. Denning ecology of brown bears in south-central Alaska and comparisons with a sympatric black bear population. International Conference of Bear Research and Management 8, 279–287.

Moen, A. N. 1976. Energy conservation by white-tailed deer in the winter. Ecology 57, 192-8.

Novick, H. J., J. M. Siperek and G. R. Stewart. 1981. Denning characteristics of black bears, Ursus americanus, in the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California. California Fish Game 67, 52-61.

Noyce, K. V. and D. L. Garshelis. 1994. Body size and blood characteristics as indicators of condition and reproductive performance in black bears. Ursus americanus 9(1): 481–496.

Oftedal, O. T., G. L. Alt, E. M. Widdowson and M. R. Jakubasz. 1993. Nutrition and growth suckling black bears (Ursus americanus) during their mothers' winter fast. British Journal of Nutrition             70, 59-79.

Payne, N. F., B. E. Kohn, N. C. Norton and G. G. Bertagnoli. 1998. Black bear food items in northern Wisconsin. Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters 86:263–280.

Pelton, M. R. 2003. Black bears in wild mammals of North America: biology, management, and             conservation. G. A. Feldhamer, B. C. Thompson and J. A. Chapman, Eds. 2nd ed. Johns H opkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland. 547-555.

Pelton, M. R., A. B. Coley, T. H. Eason, D. L. Doan Martinez, J. A. Pederson, F. T. Van Manen and K. T. Weaver. 1999. American black bear conservation action plan. C. Servheen, Ed. Bears: Status survey and conservation action plan. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Cambridge, UK 144-156.

Phylum Chordata 1997.  <>.  Accessed 4 October 2013.

Pierson, D. J. 1966. Washington’s black bear problem. Proceedings Conference Western Association of             State Game and Fish Commissions 46, 96–100.

Polar, Black, Grizzly, and Asiatic Bears: Genus Ursus 2009.  <>.  Accessed 4 October 2013.

Popowics, T. E. 2003. Postcanine dental form in the Mustelidae and Viverridae (Carnivora: Mammalia). Journal of Morphology 256:322–341.

Rogers, L. L., G. A. Wilker and A. W. Allen. 1988. Managing northern forests for black bears. T. W. Hoeckstra, Ed. Integrating forest management for wildlife and fish. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report NC122 36-42.

Ryan, C. W, and Vaugan, M. R.  2004.  Den characteristics of Black Bear in Southwestern Virginia.  Southeastern Naturalist 3:659-668.

Sadeghpour, M. H. and T. F. Ginnett. 2011. Habitat selection by female American black bears in             northern Wisconsin. International Association for Bear Research and Management 22(2):159-166.

Samson, C. and J. Huot. 1995. Reproductive biology of female black bears in relation to body mass in early winter. Journal of Mammalogy 76:68–77.

Schmidt, W. C. and M. Gourley. 1992. Black bear. Black, H.C., Ed. Silvicultural approaches to animal damage management in Pacific Northwest forests. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-287, USDA Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experimental Station, Portland, Oregon 309–331.

Schwartz, C. C., S. D. Miller and A. W. Franzmann. 1986. Denning ecology of three black bear   populations in Alaska. International Conference on Bear Research and Management 7, 281–291.

Stewart, W. B. 1997. An investigation of black bear damage to forest stands in western Washington. M.S. Thesis, Washington State University, Pullman 120.

Stewart, W. B., G. W. Witmer, G. M. Koehler and M. Norton. 2002. Incisor analysis technique to predict the gender of black bears damaging trees. International Biodeterioration & Biodegredation 49:209-212.

The University of Edinburgh Ursidae 1997.  <>.  Accessed 4 October 2013.

Wimsatt, W. A. 1963. Delayed implantation in the Ursidae, with special reference to the black bear (Ursus americanus Pallas). A.C. Enders, Ed. Delayed Implantation. Chicago: University of 49-74.

Young, D. D. and J. J. Beecham. 1983. Black bear habitat use at Priest Lake, Idaho. International             Conference of Bear Research and Management 6, 73–80.

 Ziegltrum, G. J. 1994. Supplemental feeding program in western Washington. Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference 16, 36–40.

Home     Contact Us