Relevant external references:
Encyclopedia of Life
Information on Forensic Entomology via Simon Fraser University
More information on A. vulgare's important environmental role via University of Florida in the following article

American Orchid Society 2003. <URL:>. Accessed 5 November 2013.

Anderson, G.S. 2013. Forensic entomology: the use of insects in death investigations. <URL:>. Accessed 5 November 2013.

Animal Diversity Web 1999.<URL:>. Accessed 16 November 2013.

Beauche, F. and F.J. Richard. 2013. The best timing of mate search in Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea). Public Library of Science ONE 8: 1-9.

Biotic Inventory: documenting diversity at the Katharine Ordway natural history study area 2010.<URL:>. Accessed 16 November 2013.

Bouchon, D, Cordaux, R and P. Grève. 2008. Feminizing Wolbachia and the evolution of sex determination in isopods.   Pages 273-294 in K. Bourtzis and T.A. Miller, editors. Insect Symbiosis. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.

British myriapod and isopod group n.d. <URL:>. Accessed 16 November 2013.

Chevalier, F, J. Herbiniere-Gaboreau, J. Bertaux, M. Raimond, F. Morel, D. Bouchon, P. Greve and C. Braquart-Varnier.  2011. The immune cellular effectors of terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare: meeting with their invaders, Wolbachia. PLoS ONE 6: e18531.

Cloudsley-Thompson, J.L. 1977. The water and temperature relations of Woodlice. Meadowfield Press, Durham, England.

Cordaux, R., A. Michel-Salzat, M. Frelon-Raimond, T. Rigaud and D. Bouchon. 2004. Evidence for a new feminizing Wolbachia strain in the isopod Armadillidium vulgare: evolutionary implications.  Heredity 93: 78-84.

Csonka, D, K. Halasy, P. Szabo, P. Mrak, J. Strus and E. Hornung. 2013. Eco-morphological studies on pleopodal lungs and cuticle in Armadillidium species (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea). Elsevier 42 (3): 229-235.

Discover Life in America 2010.<URL:>. Accessed 16 November 2010.

Encyclopedia of life 2013.<URL:> . Accessed 16 November 2013.
Hadley, N.F. 1994. Water relations of terrestrial arthropods. Academic Press, Waltham, Massachusetts.

Joseph, I, D.G. Mathew, P. Sathyan and G. Vargheese.  2012. The use of insects in forensic investigations: an overview on the scope of forensic enemology. Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences 3(2): 89-91.

Karasawa, S, J. Takatsuka and J. Kato. 2012. Report on Iridiovirus IIV-31 (Iridiovididae, Iridiovirus) infecting terrestrial isopods (Isopoda, Oniscidea) in Japan. Crustaceana 85(10): 1269-1278.

King, A.J, S.M. Cragg, Y.L. Jo Dymond, M.J. Guille, D.J, N.C. Bruce, I.A. Graham and S.J. McQueen-Mason.  2010. Molecular insight into lignocellulos digestion by a marine isopod in the absence of gut microbes. PNAS .  Accessed 5 November 2013.

Lavelle, P, Dugdale, R. and R. Scholes. 2013.<URL:> . Accessed 3 November 2013.

Lawlor, L. 1976. Molting, growth and reproductive strategies in the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare. Ecology 57: 1179-1194.

Lawlor, L. 1976. Parental investment and offspring fitness in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Latr.) (Crustacea: Oniscidea). Evolution 30: 775-785.

Miller, R.H and Cameron, G.N. 1983. Intraspecific variation of life history parameters in the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare. Oecologia 57:216-226.

Nickol, B.B. and G.E. Dappen. 1982. Armadillidium vulgare (isopoda) as an intermediate host of Plagiorhynchus cylingraceus (Acanthocephala) and isopod response to infection. The American Society of Parasitologists 68(4): 570-575.

Paris, O.H and F.A. Pitelka. 1962. Population characteristics of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare in California grassland. Ecology 43(2): 229-248.

Paris, O.H. 1963. The ecology of Armadillidium vulgare (isopoda: oniscoidea) in California grassland: food, enemies and weather.  Ecological Monographs 33(1): 1-22.

Poulin, R, S. Morand. 2000. Testes size, body size and male-male competition in acanthocephalan parasites. Journal of Zoology 250: 551-558.

Pyers, G. 2005. Pill bugs up close. Raintree, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Raham, G. 1986.  Pill Bug Biology: A spider's spinach, but a biologist's delight. The American Biology Teacher 48: 9-16.

Roberts, L, J. Janovy Jr. 2000. Foundations of Parasitology, 6th Ed. McGraw-Hill Companies,  New York, New York, USA.

Schmalfuss, H. 2003. World catalog of terrestrial isopods, isopoda: oniscidea. Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde, Stuttgart, Germany.

Seidl, B.H.M. et al. 2012. Calcite distribution and orientation in the tergite exocuticle of the isopods Porcellio scaber and Armadillidium vulgare (Oniscidea, Crustacea) - a combined FE-SEM, polarized SC mu-RSI and EBSD study. Zeitschrift Fur Kristallographie 227:777-792.

Smigel. J.T. and A.G. Gibbs. 2008. Conglobation in the pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare, as a water conservation mechanism. Journal of Insect Science 8: 1-9.

Souty-Grosset, C. et al. 1998. Individual variation in the seasonal reproduction of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare Latr. (Crustacea, Oniscidea). Acta Oecologica 19: 367-375.

Suzuki, S. and A. Ziegler. 2011. Sperm storage, sperm translocation and genetalia formation in females of the terrestrial Isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea, Peracarida, Isopoda). Arthropod Structure and Development 40: 64-76.

The Natural Source 1997. <URL://>. Accessed 5 November 2013.

Tree of Life 1997.<URL:>. Accessed 16 November 2013.

Woodland Park Zoo 2013. <URL:http:// Accessed 8 December 2013.

University of Kentucky Entomology 2010. <URL://>. Accessed 23 November 2013.

Return to Home                                                                                Learn about the creators on our Contact Us page