BIO 203



Anderson, P, & M, Westneat. 2007. Feeding mechanics and bite force modeling of the skull of Dunkleosteus terrelli. Biology Letters. 3:76-79.

Anderson, P.S, M.W. Westneat. 2007.  Feeding mechanisms and bite force modeling of the skull of Dunkleosteus terrelli, an ancient apex predator.  Biology Letters 3:77-80.

Anderson, P.S.  2008.  Shape Variation Between Arthrodire Morphotypes Indicates Possible Feeding Niches.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology.  28:961-969.

BRITT 2006.>.  Accessed 3 December 2013.  NBC News 2006.

Borzo, G. 2006.  Ancient predator had strongest bite of any fish, rivaling bite of large alligators and T. rex.  Eureka Alert .  Accessed 3 December 2013.

Carr, R, & G.L. Jackson. 2008. The Vertebrates fauna of the Cleveland member (femennian) of the Ohio Shale. Society of Verebrates Paleontology. 1-17.

Cleveland Museum of Natural History. 2009.< JustForFun/DiscoveryCards/2009/dunk.aspx>. Accessed 22 November 2013.

Dunkleosteus terrelli (Placoderm Fish). 2012. Encyclopedia of Life. Retreived from

Foglia, K.B. 2010. Biodiversity (Classification/ Taxonomy/ Systematics). Explore Biology. < ClassificationList.pdf>. Accessed 23 November 2013.

Janvier P, J. Maisey.  1996.  Early Vertebrates.  Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Lebedev, O. A., Mark-Kurik, E., Karatajūtė-Talimaa, V. N., Lukševičs, E. and Ivanov, A. (2009), Bite marks as evidence of predation in early vertebrates. Acta Zoologica, 90: 344–356. 

Long J.A, K. Trinajstic and Z. Johanson.  2009.  Devonian arthrodire embryos and the origin of internal fertilization in vertebrates.  Nature 457: 1124-1127.

Long, J.A., Trinajstic, K., Young, G.C., and Senden, T.  2008.  Live birth in the Devonian           period.  Nature.  453.

Palaeos 2002. <URL:>. Accessed 1 December 2013.

Pastino, B.  2006.  Giant “Terrible Fish” Packed Most Powerful Bite.  National Geographic News.

Snively, E., P.S. Anderson and M.J. Ryan. 2009. Functional and Ontogenetic Implications of Bite Stress in Arthrodire Placoderms. Kirtlandia: The Cleveland Museum of Natural History. 57: 1-8.

Williams, N.  2007.  Force feeding.  Current Biology 17:R3.

Young, G.C. 2010. Placoderms (Armored Fish): Dominant Vertebrates of the Devonian Period. Annual Reviews. 38:523-550.



Home page