Country of Origin

southeastern Asia and the Philippines


Citrus reticulata is grown in tropical and subtropical areas, including Florida, South Carolina, Arizona, Texas, and California.  They

are found in sunny,
warm areas

throughout the

world.  The tree is


cold-hardy and

tolerant of drought,
but the mandarin

fruit itself is very

delicate and

sensitive to the


Ecological Niche & Interactions with Other Organisms

Citrus reticulata is found in tropical and subtropical areas.  Many other organisms inhabit the same ecological niche, including other trees, animals, particularly insects.  Many types of insects feed, inhabit, or are associated with Citrus reticulata.  However, because they are highly visible during harvest, most (other than the honey-bee which aids in pollination) are usually removed by hand or disturbed by the fruit falling to the ground, in which they crawl off of the fruit onto the ground.  Two types of significant fruit flies that can be found often with Citrus reticulata include the Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata.  Citrus reticulata is a primary

                                              producer and at the bottom                                

                                              of the food web as it provides              
nutrition to various
                                              organisms in the form of

                                              sugar through its orange                   

                                              fruits, commonly known

                                              as mandarines or tangerines.

The Citrus reticulata tree blooms in the beginning of the winter months, produces
small green fruits in spring,


                                         and these fruits ripen and turn
                                         orange in late summer, early fall.  


United States Locations of Growth (National Park Service)

Green, un-ripe fruit (Wikimedia)

Citrus reticulata, like all other trees within the Citrus genus require deep soil with both good surface and internal drainage.  Surface drainage prevents water from standing around the tree and is often known as runoff.  Internal drainage refers to the water being able move through the root system by draining down through the soil.

Citrus reticulata tree grows at a pH of 6 to 8.  They do not, however, grow well in soils with a high salt content.

Like all other angiosperms, the reproduction of Citrus reticulata has the alternation of generations.  See more about how it reproduces.

Ceratitis capitata (USDA)

Orange, ripe fruit (Wikimedia)

Meet the Mandarin Orange


Moving on to how it adapts...