Domain: Eukarya
Organisms in Eukarya contain nucleated cells with membrane-bound organelles.

Kingdom: Animalia
All organisms in Animalia are multicellular, lack cell walls, and are heterotrophic (meaning they acquire nutrients through consuming other organisms).

Phyla: Chordata
Organisms in Chordata are primarily identified by the presence of a notochord, which is a rod-like, skeletal structure that is present in early embryonic stages of development. Additionally, they have a nerve cord (a hollow tube above notochord) and visceral clefts and arches (located by the pharynx). (Encyclopedia of Life 2014)

The above figure shows where the phylum Chordata fits in the kingdom Animailia. Chordata is most closely related to Echinodermata.

Class: Osteichthyes
Also referred to as the bony fishes, this class is distinct because it has a skeleton reinforced by calcium salts and is much stiffer than the skeleton of cartilaginous fish. Another adaptation in this class includes an organ called a swim bladder that allows the fish to float in the water. Also, they have an operculum that allows them to breathe without swimming. Other special adaptations include many teeth, paired fins, and numerous vertebrae. (Fernbank Science Center)

Order: Pleuronectiformes
Commonly referred to as flatfishes, organisms in Pleuronectiformes are asymmetrical and have highly compressed bodies. Larval organisms have an eye on each side of their head, but eventually one eye migrates to the other side, leading adults to have both eyes on the same side of their head. (Encyclopedia Britannica 2014)

Family: Bothidae
Organisms in Bothidae have their eyes on the left side of their body. The pelvic fin base is long on the ocular side and short on the blind side. Additionally, gill membranes are connected, the anus is generally far up on the blind side, and anal fin rays are shortened posteriorly. (Encyclopedia Britannica 2014)

The above figure shows the relationship of the family Bothidae to three other families within the order Pleuronectiformes. The families Scophtahlmidae, Bothidae, and Paralichthyidae all have left-eyed flounders, while Pleuronectidae contains right-eyed flounders (ArcanthoWeb 2014).

Genus: Bothus
Organisms in Bothus have a very flat and deep body. Additionally, the membrane joining the operculum to the pectoral fin is scaleless. A lateral line is only developed on the eyed side. (Marine Species Identification Portal 2014)

Species: Bothus lunatus
Bothus lunatus
is distinguished by it ability to camouflage to the bottom substrate. Additionally, the fins and head contain many blue spots. (Marine Species Identification Portal 2014) If you would like to learn more about this species, feel free to explore this website.

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