Ashmead, W.H., Burroughs, J., Bush, K.J., Cardot, J., Coe, W.R., Curtis, E.S., Dall, W.H., Eisen, G., Emerson, B.K., Gilbert, G.K., Grinnell, G.B., Harriman, E.H., Merriam, C.H., Muir, J., Nutting, C.C., Rathburn, M.J., Robertson, A., Smithsonian Institutuion, Verrill, A.E., Washington Academy of Sciences. (1899). Alaska/ Harriman Alaska Expedition. New York, U.S.A., 70.

Baker, Frank Collins. (1911). The Lymnaidae of North and Middle America. The Chicago Academy, U.S.A. 20, 184-185.

Chapter 8: Freshwater Snails. Working paper no. P.337. Web. 07 Dec. 2011. <http://www.whoint/water_sanitation_health/resources/vector337to356.pdf>.

Club, Ottawa Field Naturalists. (1938). The Canadian Field Naturalist. Ottawa. 114.

Ghesquire, Stijn A.I. "Various Freshwater Snails." The Apple Snail (Ampullariidae) Website. Web. 07 Dec. 2011. <>.

Johnson, Paul D. "Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Freshwater Snail Biodiversity and Conservation - Home - Virginia Coopertive Extension." Publications and Educational Resources - Home - Virginia Coopertive Extension. Virginia Cooperative Extension. Web. 10 Dec. 2011. <>.

McKillop, W.B. (1993). The Canadian Field Naturalist. Ottawa. 192-195.

Hickman, C.P., Roberts, L.S., Kleen, S. L., Larson, A., Eisenhour, D. J. (2009). Animal        Diversity. McGraw Hill, U.S.A.

Lowe, Nancy. "Identification Guides and Checklists of Plants and Animals." Discover Life. Web. 06 Nov. 2011. <>.

Michels, J. (1875). Science. New York, U.S.A. 520

Myers, P., Espinosa, R., Parr, C.S., Jones, T., Hammond, G.S., Dewey, T.A., (2006). The Animal Diversity Web (online). <>.

Pip, Eva. (1985). The Nautilus. Melbourne, Florida. U.S.A. 56