Baker, F.C. 1939. Fieldbook of Illinois Land Snails. Authority of the State of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA.

Cookson, E.A. 1982. The Comparative Morphology and Histology of the Penial Apparatus in Three Pulmonate Gastropod Species. Pages 73-84. Bios. Beta Beta Beta Biological Society, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA.

Coppolino, M.L. 2009. Land Snails in Illinois. OutdoorIllinois. <URL:>. Accessed 15 October 2012.

Dourson, D. and J. Dourson. 2006. Land Snails of the Great Smoky Mountains (Eastern Region). <URL:>. Accessed 14 October 2012.   

Emberton, K.C. 1993. Over-representation of rare alleles in juveniles and lack of pattern in geographic distributions of alleles in a land snail. Pages 361-369. Malacologia. Institute of Malacology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Encyclopedia of Life 2012. <URL:>. Accessed 16 October 2012.

Encyclopedia of Life 2012. <URL:>. Accessed 17 October 2012.

Foster, B.A. and Stiven, A.E. 1996. Experimental Effects of Density and Food on Growth and Mortality of the Southern Appalachian Land Gastropod, Mesodon normal is (Pilsbry). Pages 300-314. The University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana, USA.

Franzen, D.S. 1944. New State Records of Mollusca from Kansas. Pages 261-273. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. Kansas Academy of Science, Lawrence, Kansas, USA.

Goodrich, C. and Schalie, H. 1944. A Revision of the Mollusca of Indiana. Pages 267-326. American Midland Naturalist. The University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana, USA.

Hanson, B., Garifullina, G.F., Lindlom, S.D., Wangeline, A., Ackley, A., Kramer, K., Norton, A.P., Lawrence, C.B., and Pilon-Smits, E.A.H. 2003. Selenium accumulation protects Brassica junceafrom invertebrate herbivory and fungal infection. Pages 461-469. New Phytologist. Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.

Hickman, C.P., Roberts, L.S., Keen, S.L., Larson, A. and Eisenhour, D.J. 2012. Animal Diversity.McGraw-Hill, New York, New York, USA.

Horne, F.R. and Barnes, G. 1970. Reevaluation of Urea Biosynthesis in Prosobranch and Pulmonate Snails. Pages 452-457. Z. vergl. Physiologie. Southwest Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas, USA.

Horne, F. and Boonkoom, V. 1970.The distribution of the ornithine cycle enzymes in twelve gastropods. Pages 141-153.Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. <URL:>. Accessed 28 October 2012.

Ingram, W.M. 1942. Snail Associates of Blarina Brevicauda Talpoides (Say). Pages 255-258. Journal of Mammalogy. American Society of Mammalogists, Lawrence, Kansas, USA.

Marieb, E.N. 2012. Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology. Pearson Education Inc, San Francisco, California, USA.

Pearce, T.A.  1996.  Interference and Resource Competition in Two Land Snails:  Adults Inhibit Conspecific Juvenile Growth in Field and Laboratory.  Pages 390-391.  The Malacological Society of London. Oxford University Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Perez, K.E. and Cordeiro, J.R. 2008. A Guide for Terrestrial Gastropod Identification. Pages 12-73. American Malacological Society. Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois, USA.

Pilsbry, H.A. 1940. Land Mollusca of North America (North of Mexico). The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Tompa, A.S. 1976. A comparative study of the ultrastructure and mineralogy of calcified land snail eggs (Pulmonata: Stylommatophora). Pages 861-887. Journal of Morphology. Wiley Subscription Services, Inc, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Wilbur, K.M. 1984. The Mollusca. Academic Press Inc, Orlando, Florida, USA.