Arnett, R. H. Jr., PhD. 1985. American insects: a handbook of the insects of America north of Mexico. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, New York, USA.

Arthropod museum 2010. <URL:>. Accessed 20 March 2012.

Carlson, J., Charney, N. and Eiseman, C. 2010. Tracks and sign of insects and other invertebrates: a guide to North American species. Stackpole Books, Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania, USA.

Comstock, J. 1940. Introduction to entomology. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, New York, USA.

Dunn, G. 1996. Insects of the Great Lakes Region. The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Entomology Kansas State University. <URL:>. Accessed 4 April 2012.

Entomology Texas A&M University 1999. <URL:>. Accessed 22 March 2012.

Entomology University of Minnesota. <URL:>. Accessed 25 March 2012.

U.S. Department of Agriculture 1974. <URL:>. Accessed 22 March 2012.

Osborn, H.1916. Agricultural entomology for students, farmers, fruit-growers and gardeners. Lea and Febiger, New York, New York, USA.

The Animal Diversity Web (online) 2012. <URL:>. Accessed 27 March 2012.