Books and Journals

Baker J, Parrish J, Heins D.1991 Reproductive season, clutch parameters and oocyte size of the johnny darter. Etheostoma nigrum from southwestern Mississippi. American Midland Naturalist  125.2:180.

Guill J, Hood C, Heins D. 2003. Body shape variation within and among three species of darters (Perciformes: Percidae). Ecology Of Freshwater Fish. 12.2:134-140.

Ingersoll, Christopher G., and Dennis L. Claussen. 1984. "Temperature Selection and Critical     Thermal Maxima of the Fantail Darter, Etheostoma Flabellare, and Johnny Darter, E. Nigrum, Trelated to Habitat and Season." Environmental Biology of Fishes 11.2: 131-38.


Krause R, Grant J, McLaughlin J, Marcogliese D. 2010. Do infections with parasites and exposure to pollution affect susceptibility to predation in johnny darters (Etheostoma nigrum?. Canadian Journal Of Zoology. 88(12):1218-1225.


Martin, F.D. 1984. Diets of Sympatric Species of Etheostoma (Pisces, Percidae) from Southern Indiana- Interspecific and Intraspecific Multiple Comparisons. Environmental Biology of Fishes. 11.2: 113-120.


Rahel F. and Stein R. 1988. Complex predator-prey interactions and predator intimation among crayfish, piscivorous fish and small benthic fish. Oecologia. 75.1:94-98.


Rahel F. 1989. Nest defense and aggresive interactions between a small benthic fish (the johnny darter Etheostoma nigrum) and crayfish. Department of Zoology and Physiology. 24.4:301-306.


Grant J. and Colgan P. 1983. Reproductive success and mate choice in the johnny darter, Etheostoma nigram (Piseces:Percidae). Canadian Journal of Zoolology. 61.2:437-446.


Smith R. 1979. Alarm reaction of iowa and johnny darters (Etheostoma, Percidae, Pisces) to chemicals from injured conspecifics. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 57.6:1278-1282.




Web Source


BioKids. < URL:>. Accessed 11 April 2013.


Encyclopedia of Life. <URL:>. Accessed 10 April 2013.


Johnny Darter. <URL:

johnnydarter.html> Accessed 11 April 2013.


ODNR Division of Wildlife.<URL:

SpeciesGuideIndex/johnnydarter/tabid/6664/Default.aspx>. Accessed 10 April 2013.


Pennsylvania's Dynamic Darters. <URL:

/darters.html>. Accessed 9 April 2013.


Johnny darter Etheostoma nigrum. <URL:>   Accessed 8 April 2013.


Wisconsin Natural Resources Magazine. <URL: >. Accessed 9 April 2013.


Utah Fish Advisories. <URL:>. Accessed 11 April 2013.