The yellow bullhead reproduces by spawning in May or June when the water temperature reach the 70 degree ferhenheit range (DNR Minnesota).  Through spawning, the yellow bullhead can produce ample amounts of eggs (300-several thousands of eggs), helping to ensure an evolutionary advantage against environmental factors as including predation within their habitat while producing offspring.  The yellow bullheads prefer to spawn in areas with weed banks at the bottom region of the water habitat they are living in. (DNR Wisconsin). 

 Bullheads will create nests to lay their eggs into for protection (Cairns et al 1990).  For the yellow bullhead, it is the female who will create this nest by moving her lower fins over the sand, to create a small dish-sized nest. All nests will usually be by other structure such as a rock, log, or an area with a higher density of weeds- for even more protection (DNR Wisconsin). 


 After the eggs are laid, then the male will use his milt (seminal fluid) to fertilize the eggs (Hamlett 2003). The bullheads are considered to be better parents then other fish species.  The male will watch over the eggs during the 5-10 day period where they are in the nest.  After the eggs have hatched, both parents will look after their young (DNR Ohio).  Both parents will circle the schools of recently hatched yellow bullheads for about two weeks before the young are on their own.  The bullhead's will be fully mature within two to three years (Brown et al 2011).  The yellow bullhead will live up to 7 years old, and will reach about 2 pounds at an average of 8 to 10 inches (Rhodes et al 2009).

Continue on to see how the yellow bullhead interacts with other species
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