References      *Photo references located in the Gallery

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Branson, B.A. 1997. Legions of legs. World & I 12: 170.

Blower, J.G. 1985. Millipedes Keys and Notes for the Identification of the Species. The Linnean Society of London,London,    England.

Blower, J.G. 1985. Millipedes: Keys and Notes for the Identification of the Especies. The Bath Press, Avon, UK.

Blower, J.G., Dohle W. and Enghoff H. 1993. Anamorphosis in millipedes (Diplopoda)- the present state of knowledge with some developmental and phylogenetic considerations. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 109: 103-234

Camatini, M. 1979. Myriapod biology. Academic Press Inc., London, Great Britain.

Campbell, N.A., Reece, J.B., Urry, L.A., Cain, M.L., Wasserman, S.A., Minorsky, P.V., Jackson, R.B. 2008. Biology.       Pearson Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco, California, U.S.A.

Capinera, J.L. 2010. Insects and wildlife arthropods and their relationships with wild vertebrate animals. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Hoboken, New Jersey, USA.

Cárcamo, H.A., T.A. Abe, C.E. Prescott, F.B. Holl and C.P. Chanway. 2000. Influence of millipede on litter decomposition, N mineralization, and microbial communities in a coastal forest in British Columbia, Canada. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 30: 817-826.

Chamberlin, R.V. and Hoffman, R.L. 1958. Checklist of the millipedes of North America. United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.

David, J.F. and D. Gillon. 2002. Annual feeding rate of the millipede Glomeris marginata on holm oak (Quercus ilex) leaf litter under Mediterranean conditions. Pedobiologia 46: 42-52.

Denton, M. 1997. Promecognathus laevissimus dejean 1829. The Evergreen State College. <URL:
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Eisner, T. and J. Meinwald. 1966. Defensive Secretions of Arthropods. Science 153.

Eisner, T., H.E. Eisner, J.J. Hurst, F.C. Kafatos, and J. Meinwald. 1963. Cyanogenic glandular apparatus of a millipede. Science 139: 1218-1220.

Hartenstein, R. 1982. Soil macroinvertebrates, aldehyde oxidase, catalase, cellulose and peroxidase. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 14: 387-391.

Hopkin, S.P. and Read, H.J. 1992. The biology of millipedes. Oxford University Press, New York, U.S.A.

Hopkin, S.P. and H.J. Read. 1992. The biology of millipedes. Oxford University Press. Oxford, UK.

Hudson, B.J. and G.A. Parsons. 1997. Giant millipede “burns” and the eye. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 91: 183-185.

Jensen, E., Zahler, D., Patterson, B., & Littlefield, B. 2011. Common trees of the pacific northwest. Oregon State University. <URL:> Accessed 9 November 2013.

 Joy, S., K. Sarkar, R. Pramanik and V.C. Joy. Digestion of carbohydrate resources in decomposing leaf litter by Anoplodesmus saussurei (Humb.) (Polydesmida: Diplopoda). Ecology, Environment and Conservation 4: 117-122.

Rawlins, A.J., I.D. Bull, N. Poirier, P. Ineson, R.P. Evershed. 2006. The biochemical transformation of oak (Quercus robur) leaf litter consumed by the pill millipede (Glomeris marginata). Soil Biology and Biochemistry 38: 1063-1076.

Requena, S.R. et al. 2009. Efficiency of uniparental male and female care against egg predators in two closely related syntopic harvestmen. Animal Behavior 78:1169-1176.

Rockstein, M. 1978. Biochemistry of Insects. Academic Press, New York, New York, USA.

Roy, S.N. and V.C. Joy. Dietary effects of non-nutrients in the leaf litter of forest trees on assimilation, growth and tissue composition of the detritivous soil arthropod Anoplodesmus saussurei (Humb.) (Polydesmida: Diplopoda). Applied Soil Ecology 43: 53-60.

Ruppert, E.E. and Barnes, R.D. 1994. Invertebrate Zoology. Saunders College Publishing, Fort Worth, U.S.A.

Thakur, P.C.,  Apurva, P., and Sinha, S.K. 2011. Comparative study of characteristics of biocompost produced by millipedes and earthworms. Advances in Applied Science Research 2: 94-98.

Schimming, L. and Shelley, R. 2008. Species Harpaphe haydeniana. Iowa State University Entomology. <URL:> Accessed 9 November 2013.

Sierwald, P. and Bond, J.E. 2007. Current status of the myriapod class diplopoda (millipedes): taxonomic diversity and phylogeny. The Annual Review of Entomology.  <URL:> Accessed 19 November 2013.

Youngsteadt, N.W. 2009. Laboratory Observations on the Natural History of Pseudopolydesmus pinetorum (Diplopoda, Poydesmida, Polydesmidae) with Emphasis on Reproduction and Growth. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 112: 67-76.