Med Basin


The Scarabaeus sacers’ life cycle revolves around its reproduction cycle. They are mainly located in costal sub regions where they are submerged in the sand (Lobo et al. 2001). In the beginning of spring the adult S. sacer emerge to reproduce. Their main focus when emerging is to feed to mature their gonads (Halffter et al. 2011). They then fly to locate theri food source, which is the dung of cows, sheep, or Two scarab beetles in the process of courting each othersimilar animals; they then fly to locate their food source (Halffter et al. 2011). If it is a smaller amount of dung, like from a sheep, the beetle uses its middle or hind legs to roll one or several pellets while it pulls other dung pellets towards itself using its front legs, all of which are made into one larger ball (Halffter et al. 2011). If the amount of dung is larger, the beetle will use its clypeus (front of head) and forelegs to cut away pieces of dung and then push it under their body (Halffter et al. 2011).

After obtaining their food, the S. sacers’ next goal is to push the ball of dung back to their nest (no farther than 3 cm) for mating and a food resource (Halffter et al. 2011). Sometimes the male and female will push the dung ball back to their nest individually, but it is much more common for the female and male to work together (Halffter et al. 2011). If the male and female are working together the male will generally push and the female will pull (Halffter et al. 2011).

A large factor that is important during the relocation of the dung is fighting; it can be used as a form of sexual selection (Halffter et al. 2011). Males will generally fight over dung balls and females will follow wherever the ball of dung goes (Halffter et al. 2011). The dung balls can generally be given to a female as a gift (Halffter et al. 2011). If a female is rolling the ball she will fight other females for the dung ball. If she is rolling it by herself and a male shows up he will finish rolling the ball and she will follow (Halffter et al. 2011). The attacker generally tries to climb on top of the ball, while the owner defends it and they fight by striking each other with their anterior tibia(Halffter et al. 2011).

When the dung ball is brought to the nest, the couple both buries the ball where the mating then occurs (Halffter et al. 2011). Mating happens on the surface of the dung. (Halffter et al. 2011). After mating, the male will surface from the dung and then search for a new female to mate with while the original female stays in the dung and feeds on it. (Halffter et al. 2011). Along with feeding on the dung, the female will transform the ball into an ovoid shape and builds a chamber for the egg and oviposits (lays egg) in it. Once the egg is laid, the female will abandon the nest (Halffter et al. 2011).

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