Photinus courtesy of Don Salvatore


Cratsley, C. K. and S.M. Lewis. 2005. Seasonal variation in late choice of Photinus ignitus fireflies. Ethology 111: 89-100.

Debbie, H. 2013. Life cycle of fireflies and lightning bugs. Insects. Retrieved from 
Eisner, T., D.F. Wiemer, L.W. Haynes and J. Meinwald. 1978. Lucibufagins: Defensive steroids from the fireflies Photinus ignitus and P. marginellus (Coleoptera: Lampyridae). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 75: 905-908.

Lewis, S.M. and C.K. Cratsley. 2008. Flash signal evolution, mate choice, and predation in fireflies. Annual Review of Entomology 53: 293-321.

Cratsley, C.K. 2004. Flash signals, nuptial gifts and female preference in Photinus fireflies. Oxford Journals 44: 238-241.

Branham, M.A. and J.W. Wenzel. 2002. The origin of photic behavior and the evolution of sexual communication in fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae). Science Direct 19: 1-22.

Lloyd J.E. 2005. Fireflies (Coleoptera:lampyridae). Encyclopedia of Entomology 1:841-862.

Firefly 2013. Accessed 3 November.

Animal Diversity Web (ADW) 2013. 3 November 2013.

Museum of Science 2013. Accessed 21 November 2013.

Zielinski, S. 2013. 14 Fun Facts About Fireflies. Surprising Science. Retrieved from

The Free Dictionary 2013. Accessed 23 November 2013. 

Merriam-Webster 2013. Accessed 23 November 2013.

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