||Are all simple single celled organisms,
prokaryotes, that lack a cell nucleus along with other membrane bound
organelles. Prokaryotes are the most abundant organism on the
Earth. Bacteria are found in different shapes cocci (round), bacilli
(rod), and spirilla (spiral). For many years the shape of a
bacteria and its gram staining classified microorganisms. Now they
compare the DNA and RNA sequencing.
||They are gram-positive bacteria, which means the cell wall is
thicker due to the presence of Peptidoglycan. Peptidoglycan is composed
of amino acid chains. Some of these organisms cause many diseases
including Pneumonia, while others are beneficial to human health and
used in antibiotics. Not all of the bacteria in this phylum are
gram- positive, some are gram-negative but share molecular similarities.
G-C (guanine-cytosine content in the genetic make up is low
||Cells are in a rod shape either straight or spiral,
can be found in pair or in a chain formation. They are
||They are known as lactic acid bacteria (LAB),
because they produce lactic acid. Classification for this family is
usually based on the metabolic characteristics. Can benefit the host, and
are considered probiotic. Other microorganisms can cause ailments.
||They do not produce endospores.
Endospores are a nonreproductive structures that help the bacteria
survive when environmental conditions are stressful. Normally found in
||Used in production of milk and dairy products,
by converting lactose into lactic acid. Make up most of the LAB,
and starter cultures for food production. By looking at the genes that
encode 16S or 23S rDNA molecules help microbiologists to split bacteria
into their species.
||All have closely related G - C sequences in 16S
rRNA, but differ slightly from one another.
||Rapid fermentation is essential in the
production of yogurt, unlike lactis which is used in cheese and
has a slower metabloism. Utilizes only lactose to ferment.