There are many restrictions that the pineapple plant must overcome in order to survive in the wild. They live in moderately warm areas (16-30 degrees Celsius).Three important limitations are that it cannot tolerate frost, it is intolerant of temperatures higher than 40° Celsius (sun also causes sunburn to the plant), and it has a fragile root system that requires to be well drained. Well this puts the pineapple plant in quite a pickle, considering it can’t be too hot or too cold to grow. Luckily for us, the pineapple has made some great adaptations in order to overcome the limitations they have. (9)


           The leaves on the pineapple are specially designed in increase water intake as well as absorb sunlight. The leaves grow spirally around the stump, with every thirteenth leaf being five turns of the stem and directly above the first leaf.  The leaves of bromeliads have a colorless and translucent water storage tissue that is used to store water for later use, such as periods of drought or inadequate moisture. Stomata are also used to increase water intake. Stomata are pores in the leaf that open and close that allow for gas and water exchange. Carbon dioxide enters the plant through the stomata and moisture leaves through them. Pineapple plants also have trichomes on the underside of the surface of the leaves. Trichomes are tiny, hair-like structures that surround the stomata to prevent any further water loss. (9)


            Pineapple plants have two different kinds of roots. First, they have the soil roots that start at the base of the stem and grow to form the underground root system. The second is axillary roots that are formed on the leaf axils. These axillary roots are a great adaption for the plant because it allows for direct absorption of water and nutrients. At the tip of the axillary roots is unlignified white tissue that allows for absorption. (9)

CAM photosynthesis:

            The pineapple plant undergoes a special photosynthetic pathway called Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM). This is a great adaptation because it allows the plant to conserve moisture. You may be asking how does this work? Well it is a relatively simple process.  At night, the stoma open and fixes carbon dioxide to be stored as malic acid, which is used during the day when the stomata are closed and the plant undergoes photosynthesis. (9) Two other CAM plants are Peyote and Aloe Vera.

Well those are some pretty cool adaptations that the pineapple plant makes. Now lets see what they use for nutrition here or return to the homepage here.