Asclepias syriaca



Agrawal, A.A. 2004. Resistance and susceptibility of milkweed: competition, root herbivory, and plant genetic variation. University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 85: 2118–2133.

Agrawal, A.A. and M. Fishbein. 2008. Phylogenetic escalation and decline of plant defense strategies. Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY. 105: 10057-10060.

Anderson,W.P. 1999. Perennial Weeds: Characteristics and identifications of selected herbaceous species. Iowa State University Press.

Klips, R.A., and T.M. Culley. 2004. Natural hybridization between prairie milkweeds, Asclepias sullivntii and Asclepias syriaca: morphological, isozyme, and hand-pollination evidence. International Journal of Plant Sciences 165: 1027-1037.

National Parks Service 2013. <URL: >. Accessed 1 April 2013.

Morse, D.H. 1994. The role of self-pollen in the female reproductive success of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca: Asclepiadaceae). American Journal of Botany. 81: 322-330.

Oberhauser, K.S. and M.J. Solensky. 2004. The monarch butterfly: biology and conservation. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.

Shore, J.S. 1993. Pollination genetics of the common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L. Heredity. 70: 101-108.

Spiridon, I. 2007. Modifications of Asclepias syriaca fibers for paper production. Industrial Crops and Products. 26: 265-269.

Thayer, S. 2006. The forager's harvest: a guide to identifying, harvesting, and preparing edible wild plants. Forager's Harvest, Omega, Wisconsin, USA.

University of Pennsylvania poisonous plants 2002. <URL: >. Accessed 1 April 2013.

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