Gonyaulax catenella thrives in the photic zones of the water columns.
Because theyGonyaulax catenella blooms 1970 to 2006 © 2007 WHOI use photosynthesis as a means of acquiring nutrition, they must stay near the top. They prefer cooler temperatures in coastal and open waters. The organism is dispersed throughout their habitat by wind driven and tidal currents. They can also move about the water column in response to temperature and light. As shown on the map, outbreaks of this organism has been found in waters along the north-east coast of North America: Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine; Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Quebec in Canada; and along the countries bordering the Northern Sea including Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Norway and the United Kingdom. They have also been found in         © 2007 WHOI
the northern Atlantic coasts of South Africa, and New Zealand. Just recently has G. catenella been found to be poisoning waters near Japan.

  Gonyaulax catenella has adapted to cooler temperate waters so it canRide Tide Algal Bloom in New Zealand. ©M.Godfrey bloom Red Tide. In some unusual instances, G. catenella
red tide blooms have begun to grow in warm waters around South America. To understand what changes and modifications Gonyualux catenella has gone through to survive as a thriving organism, follow the link to the Adaptations page

Take a peak at another marine organim, the Irukandji Jellyfish .