Burch, J.B. 1962. How to know the eastern land snails: pictured-keys for determining the land snails of the United States occurring east of the rocky mountain divide. W.C. Brown Company, Dubuque, Iowa, USA.

Craig S., Thoney, D., Schlager N. 2004.Grzimek’s Animal Life Encyclopedia. Gale Group, Farmington Hills, Minnesota, USA.

Dourson, G. 2010. Kentucky’s Land Snails. Goatslug Publications, Bakersville, North Carolina, USA.

Encyclopedia of Life 2012. <URL:> . Accessed 3 November 2012.

Gillis, R. 2012. Animal biology lab manual. UW-La Crosse Biology Department.

Hickman, C.P., L.S. Roberts, S.L. Keen, A. Larson, and D.J. Eisenhour. 2012. Animal Diversity. 6th edition. McGraw-Hill, New York City, New York, USA.

Hotopp, K., T. Pearce. 2006 <URL:>. Accessed 1 November 2012.

Nichols, D. 1971. The Oxford Book of Invertebrates. Oxford University Press, Ely House, London, England.

Wilbur, K. 1984. The Mollusca, Volume 7: Reproduction. Academic Press, Inc., London, England.

Wilbur, K. 1984. The Mollusca, Volume 10: Evolution. Academic Press, Inc., London, England.

 Wikipedia 2012. <URL:>. Accessed 10 November 2012.

Van De Graaff, K., Crawley, J. 1998. A Photographic Atlas for the Zoology Laboratory. Morton Publishing Company, Englewood, Colorado, USA.

                                               Wisconsin Land Snail Page