Latin name: Millerelix peregrina (Rehder, 1932) (Pilsbry, 1940)

-In Latin, peregrina means "a stranger" (Pilsbry, 1940).

-This terrestrial snail species was discovered by Harald Alfred Rehder, an American malacologist (Pilsbry, 1940).
-It was originally named Polygyra peregrina, but was changed in 1932 to the genus Millerelix (EOL, 2012).
-Common name in English: "white liptooth" or "strange many-whorled land snail" (EOL, 2012).
This common name most likely comes from the white colored tooth found on the columellar wall, or inner lip, of the shell (Pilsbry, 1940). The tooth can be seen clearly when the shell is viewed directly from the base. Millerelix peregrina’s other common name is presumably derived from the numerous whorls that characterize its shell, along with the type of habitat it resides in. The whorls can accurately be seen when a dorsal view is obtained.
Domain: Eukarya
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
Order: Stylommatophora
Family: Polygyridae   
Genus: Millerelix
Specific Epithet: peregrina
Scientific name: Millerelix peregrina
Domain: Eukarya- includes all organisms with eukaryotic cells, meaning that the cells contain a nucleus and membrane bound organelles (as compared to Prokaryotic cells, which lack either of the previous characteristics) (Hickman et al., 2012). 
Kingdom: Animalia- organisms in this kingdom possess certain qualities that make them suitable to be described as “animals” (Hickman et al., 2012). In order to be considered for this taxon, an organism must be multicellular, have specialized tissues such as those needed to form organs and organs systems (i.e. the digestive tract), and be heterotrophic, which separates animals and fungi from plants (Hickman et al., 2012). A lack of a cell wall further disassociates animals from fungi (Hickman et al., 2012).
Phylum: Mollusca (soft body)- there are several specific synapomorphies (shared traits) that define this taxon (Hickman et al., 2012). Some of these traits include a mantle cavity that is located posteriorly on the body, a radula, a heart with several chambers, and a muscular foot that is typically used for locomotion (Hickman et al., 2012). Other traits include the presence of spicules made of calcium. (Hickman et al., 2012). Molluscs also have a mantle (Hickman et al., 2012).
Class: Gastropoda (stomach foot)- within the Phylum Mollusca, Gastropoda is the largest and most diverse class (Hickman et al., 2012). The class Gastropoda has an estimated 70,000 living species (Hickman et al., 2012). These organisms are often very languid because they have heavy shells and slow locomotor organs (Hickman et al., 2012). The class Gastropoda is defined by having bilateral symmetry (Hickman et al., 2012). Bilateral symmetry is brought about by torsion, which is a twisting process that causes the snail to have an asymmetric, distorted appearance (Hickman et al., 2012). The shell undergoes a process referred to as coiling, in which it becomes interwound into a spiral shape (Heckman et al., 2012). Coiling allows the weight of the snail's body to be more evenly distributed (Pennington and Fu-Shiang, 1985).

Order: Stylommatophora- includes the majority of land snails and slugs (Wilbur, 1985). It is a division of the Subclass Pulmonata, which is characterized by the ability to breathe air with the use of a lung (Wilbur, 1985). Along with this trait, organisms in the Order Stylommatophora are known to have eyes that are positioned at the tips of the retractable tentacles, and are completely terrestrial (Wilbur, 1985).

Family: Polygyridae- typically, the shells of organisms in the Family Polygyridae are one color and they are rarely banded (Pilsbry, 1940). The opening of their shell is usually toothed. (Pilsbry, 1940). The penis is simple, with either a short flagellum  or none (Pilsbry, 1940). The jaws of organisms in the Family Polygyridae are ribbed, containing central and lateral teeth. (Pilsbry, 1940). The kidney is narrow and long, and it is about two to three times the length of the pericardium. (Pilsbry, 1940). The pericardium is the membrane that encloses the heart (Hickman et al., 2012). Organisms of this family have muscles that are retractable (Pilsbry, 1940). These muscles include the ocular, pharyngeal, and pedal muscles (Pilsbry, 1940).


Genus: Millerelix- there are multiple synapomorphies in this taxon that separate it from other genera. These animals are oviparous, which means that their eggs hatch outside of their bodies (Pilsbry, 1940). The penis of organisms in this genus are simple (Pilsbry, 1940). The shell has a parietal tooth, or may have a thick raised calcareous deposit (Pilsbry, 1940).


Species: Millerelix peregrina- The shell of these organisms contain many small perforations and the spire, or coiled area of the shell, is either slightly curved or almost flat (Pilsbry, 1940). The outer covering of the shell is pale and somewhat glossy in appearance (Pilsbry, 1940). An important distinguishing trait of this species are the teeth (Pilsbry, 1940). The parietal tooth is very prominent and pointed, while the basal tooth is longer and less pointed (Pilsbry, 1940). The basal tooth is further out on the lip than M. troostiana's, which is a relative of Millerelix peregrina (Pilsbry, 1940). This is an important distinguishing factor between the two species (Pilsbry, 1940). Another characteristic of the species is the presence of a tooth that is deeply immersed within the outer lip of the organism (Pilsbry, 1940). 



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