Literature Cited

Auffenberg, K. and L. A. Stange. 1989. The Polygyridae (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) of Florida. 1. Key to the Genera and Subgenera. Entomology Circular 317:1-4.

Binney, W.G. 1878. The Terrestrial Air-Breathing Molluscs of the United States and Adjacent Territories of North America. Volume V. Welch, Bigelow and Company University Press, Cambrige, Massechusetts.

Carnegie Museum of Natural History <URL:>. Accessed 3 November 2012.

Dourson, D. 2010. Kentucky’s land snails and their ecological communities. Goatslug Publications. Backersville, NC.

Gillis, R. 2012. Animal Biology lab manual. Biology Department UW-La Crosse.

Grewal, P.S., Grewal, S.K., Tan, L. & Adams, B.J. 2003. Parasitism of Mollusks by Nematodes: Types of Associations and Evolutionary Trends. Journal of Nematology 35:146-156.

Herbert, P. 2007.  Mollusca. Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, Canada <URL:>. Accessed 10 November 2012.

Hickman, C.P., Roberts, L.S., Keen, S.L., Larson, A., Eisenhour, D.J., 2011. Animal Diversity. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, New York, USA.

Hotopp, K.P. 2002. Land snails and soil calcium in Central Appalachian Mountain Forest. Southeastern Naturalist 1:27-44.

Krulwich, Robert. 2008. NPR. <URL:>

Parker, S. 1982.  Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms Volume 1.  McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York,    New York, USA.

Warton, B. and J.N. Matthiessen. 2005. The crucial role of calcium interacting with soil pH in enhanced biodegradation of metam-sodium. Pest Management Science 9:856-862.

Withers, S.I. 2009. A Guide to the Rare Animals of Tennessee. Tennessee Natural Heritage Program.

Outside Web Sources
- Snail Etymology
- Discovery Life
- Snail Identification
- UW - La Crosse Animal Biology Lab book (2012)
- Roan Mountain Information