Literature Cited


Beers. E, Brunner. J.F., Willett M.J.,and Warner G. 1993. Orchard Pest Management: A Resource Book for the Pacific Northwest.

Harmer, S.F and A. E. Shipley. 1999. Order VIII. Thysanoptera. The Cambridge Natural History, Insects Part 2: 526-531.

Lewis, T. 1973. Thrips: their biology, ecology, and economic importance. Academic Press Inc., London and New York, New York, USA.

Net Industries. 2012. Thrips: Thysanoptera - Physical Characteristics, Habitat, Diet, Behavior And Reproduction, Thrips And People, Western Flower Thrips (frankliniella Occidentalis): Species Account - GEOGRAPHIC RANGE, CONSERVATION STATUS.

Paini, D.R., J.E. Funderburk and S.R. Reitz. 2008. Competitive exclusion of a worldwide invasive pest by a native. Quantifying competition between two phytophagous insects on two host plant species. Journal of Animal Ecology 77:184-190.

Reitz, S. R. 2008. Comparative bionomics of Frankliniella occidentalis and Frankliniella tritici. The Florida Entomologist 99(3):474-476.

 Vries, E.J , Jacobs G, Sabelis M.W, Menken S.B.J,  and Breeuwer J.A.J. 2004. Diet−dependent effects of gut bacteria on their insect host: the symbiosis of Erwinia sp. and western flower thrips. Proceeding of the Royal Society Biological Science.

Watson, J.R. 1923. The proper name and distribution of the Florida flower thrips. The Florida Entomologist 7(1):9-11.


Apple, cherry, and larva pictures taken by:

Elizabeth H. Beers, PhD

Professor of Entomology

Washington State University

Tree Fruit Research & Extension Center


Adult thrip, damaged flower, and life cycle pictures taken by:


Steven Frank, Entomologist at NC State University :


Thrip picture showing wing taken by:


Dr. David Riley and Dr. Alton 'Stormy' Sparks from the University of Georgia, College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, Department of Entomology :




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University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
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