This picture was taken from with permission from Robert Miesner. All rights reserved to Robert Miesner. This picture is of a Libellula quadrimaculata and shows the beautiful colors of the organism.

Alaska State Insect - Four-spot Skimmer Dragonfly. <URL:>. Accessed 07 April 2013.

Conniff, R. 1996. Spineless Wonders Strange Tales from the Invertebrate World. Henry Holt and Company, New York, USA.
Corbet, P.S. 1963. A Biology of Dragonflies. Quadrangle Books, INC, Chicago, USA.Dudley, R. 2002. Mechanisms and implications of animal flight maneuverability. Integrative and Comparative Biology 42:135-140.

Dudley, R. 2002. Mechanisms and implications of animal flight maneuverability. Integrative and Comparative Biology 42:135-140.
Dunkle, S.W. 2000. Dragonflies through Binoculars a field guide to Dragonflies of North America. Oxford University Press, New York, New York, USA.
Four-spotted skimmer- Libellula quadrimaculata. <URL:>. Accessed 26 March 2013.
Gardiner, M.S. 1972. The Biology of Invertebrates. Page 647, 651. M.S. Fuller and Dr. P. Licht, editors. McGraw- Hill Book Company, New York, USA.

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <URL:>. Accessed 07 April 2013.

Libellulidea: The skimmers. <URL:>. Accessed 26 March 2013.

Moore, N.W. 1952. On the So-Called “Territories” of Dragonflies (Odonata-Anisoptera). BRILL 4,2: 85-100.  

Nicholls, S.P. 1985. Fluid Secretion by the Malpighian Tubules of the Dragonfly Libellula quadrimaculata. The Journal of Experimental Biology 116: 53-67.  

Russell, R.W., J. Fitzpatrick, K. Soltesz and M.L. May. 1998. Massive swarm migrations of dragonflies (Odonata) in Eastern North America. American Midland Naturalist 140:325-342.

Schindler, M., A. Chovanec and C. Fesl. 2003. Dragonfly associations (Insecta: Odonata) in relation to habitat variables: a multivariate approach. Hydrobiologia 497:169-180.

Silsby, J. 2001. Dragonflies of the world. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., USA.

Tillard, R.J. 1917. The biology of dragonflies (Odonata or Paraneuroptera).  Sc.D., F.R.S. A.E. Shipley, editor.             Cambridge University Press, London, England.

Wildermuth, H. 2010. Monitoring the effects of conservation actions in agricultural and urbanized landscapes – also useful for assessing climate change?. Biorisk: Biodiversity and Ecosystem Risk Assessment 5:175-192.

Willigalla, C. and T. Fartmann. 2012. Patterns in the diversity of dragonflies (Odonata) in cities across Central Europe. European Journal of Entomology 109:235-245.

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