Ginkgo biloba is a unique tree in that it doesn’t have very many interactions with other organisms. The Ginkgo tree doesn’t require these interactions because, as stated in HABITAT & GEOGRAPHY, G. biloba is very resistant to insects, pollution, fungicides, bacteria, and most diseases.
Mutualistic Symbioses:
The Ginkgo tree is usually known to only have one mutualistic symbiosis and that is with its fungal friends from the phylum Glomeromycota. (Glomeromycota is a specific phylum of fungi that is known to form mutualistic symbioses with many types of plant species.) Specifically, Ginkgo biloba interacts with a species of the Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza, but it is sometimes referred to as the more general classification, Endotrophic mycorrhiza. Two examples of Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas are Glomus fasciculatum and Glomus intraradices. Species of Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas actually go into the roots of the Ginkgo biloba and provide the tree with nutrients while the tree provides the fungus with carbon compounds, such as glucose. Are you interested in learning more about all different types of fungi? Check out TOM VOLK'S WEBPAGE completely dedicated to fungi!

** The picture above shows a microscopic image of a Ginkgo biloba root complete with a labeled hypha. The hypha is from a specific fungus that has a mutualistic symbiosis with this Ginkgo biloba plant. This wonderful picture was taken by Matthew Foltz.

Don’t forget, Ginkgo biloba is a plant, so it also has a mutualistic symbiosis with us! We breathe out carbon dioxide for it to use during photosynthesis and we breathe in the oxygen it produces.

Predation/ Parasitism:
Pretator/prey interactions, as well as parasitic interaction, are not very common among Ginkgo biloba. The leaves are toxic to most insects and therefore not many insects, nor bacteria, choose to feed or live on this tree.

As an adult, Ginkgo biloba doesn’t have too much competition for light, however, a little seedling has to fight pretty hard in order to have enough water and sunlight to grow. Some species the Ginkgo tree has to compete with are the Eastern White Pine, the Cottonwood tree, and the Sugar Maple.

Now that you know what interactions Ginkgo biloba has with other organisms, visit NUTRITION to learn how Ginkgo biloba obtains its food!