The most common relationship pattern between the red fox is between one male and one female, although, that does not mean other methods are not possible. Sometimes males with mate with multiple females (Iossa et al. 2008). In a monogamous relationship, red foxes would mate all together and live in what is called a den. If the males have many different mating females they simply aid the females in raising their offspring.  


Just like humans, red fox females have a small window of ovulation time, 6 days. Once a year, depending on where the female is determines the exact time of estrous: December-January in the south, January-February in the central regions, and February-April in the north (Animal Diversity Web 2013). Males have a set mating cycle no matter where they are located, and it starts in November and ends in March. Just like males, occasionally the females will sexually mate with many different males until they find the right male to become a companion with. Sexual reproduction lasts somewhere between 15-20 minutes which is then followed by a vocal clamor (Animal Diversity Web 2013). It takes the fertilized egg between 10 to 14 days to be implanted (Animal Diversity Web 2013) Once the female is pregnant, the female remains in the den or only ventures out for short periods of time. The male never goes inside, but provides the female with food. Males will do this right before birth and for a little while after the liter has been born. Usually there are about 1-13 pups born at a time. They are born with their eyes closed and will open them about two weeks later. For the next three months the mother, father, and older offspring foxes will be helping the new offspring adapt and survive. When the next autumn rolls around, the pups are ready to go out into the world on their own (Animal Diversity Web 2013). 



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