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Center for Disease Control.  “Botulism.”  Last updated March 27th, 2008. Accessed April 20th, 2008. <>

Center for Disease Control.  “Botulism in the United States 1899-1996.”  Accessed April 20th, 2008.


Hui, Y. H., et al.  “Clostridum botulinum.”  Foodborne Disease Handbook volume 1.  Marcel Dekker.  1994.

Hauschild, Andreas H. W. and Dodds, Karen L.  1993.  “Clostridium botulinum : ecology and control in foods.” M. Dekker, New York City, New York, USA.

Helgeson, Scott.   “Some interesting bacteria and facts about them.”  Accessed April 19th, 2008.  <>

Laskawi, Rainer.  2008.  “The use of botulinum toxin in the head and face medicine : an interdisciplinary field.”  Head and Face Medicine – PubMed Medical Journals.  <>. Accessed March 28th, 2008.

Nantel, Albert J.  “Clostridium Botulinum.”  Reviewed November 2000.  Accessed April 20th, 2008.


Nordenberg, Tamar.  “Botox Injection: Botox Injection Treatment Facts.”  Accessed April 20th, 2008.


 Smith, Louis DS.  1977.  Botulism : the organism, its toxins, the disease.  Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, USA.

Tarugu, Vikram. “Botulism.”  Last updated August 15th, 2007.  Accessed April 20th, 2008. <>

Todar, Kenneth.  “Pathogenic Clostridia.”  Todar’s Online Textbook of Bacteriology.  Accessed April 20th, 2008.


Trizna, Zolton.  “Botulinum toxin.”  WebMD.  Published on eMedicine.  Accessed April 20th, 2008.  <>

WebMD.  “Botox.” Last updated February, 8th, 2005. Accessed April 20th, 2008.  <>

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 Author - Phil Strandwitz (

Published April 17th, 2008