Thymus vulgaris


Exchange of  CO2 and O2 is necessary to carry out photosyntheseis, but water can also escape. To minimize water loss, stomata are very small and located on the bottom of the leaf. In warm climate like the Mediterranean, stomata remain closed during the day and open at night.

Waxy Cuticle
For plants, one of the challenges is keeping water. Water is used important in plants. It to keeps the pressure up in plants to prevent wilting, transports nutrients, and so much more. To prevent water evaporation, plants have a waxy cuticle. The cuticle minimizes water loss and adds an extra layer of protection.


Flowers are an adaption of angiosperms used to attract pollinators. Their shape and color vary to attract certain pollinators. The prettier flowers will be noticed first and have a higher chance of being pollinated. Besides being pretty, shape has another role. The shape can allow easier access to pollen like in Lamiaceae; the bottom three petals are fused together making a convenient spot for insects like butterflies land.  
Buttefly on thyme provided courtesy of chemazgz

Essential Oils

Thymus vulgaris like other members of Lamiaceae produces essential oils. One of the key features of this family is essential oils. According to a study by, Essential oils are only produced in 1% of flowering plants in a significant. Secondary metabolism is where essential oils are made in thyme. The essential oil in Thymus vulgaris is thymol. Within Thymus vulgaris, there are 6 different chemotypes. Two of them are phenolic and the four are non-phenolic.  

Essential oils need to be stored in special compartments in plants. The chemicals components can be harmful to plants. If they were to leak, photosynthesis could be impaired. This could result death for the plant. To prevent this, the essential oils are stored in the surface of plant tissue.  In Lamiaceae, there are specialized structures called secretory hairs. They are modified epidermal hairs on the leaves and stem. Within these epidermal hairs are glandular trichomes. The glandular trichome diffuse essential oils out though the cell wall and cytoplasm to the outside.  When the plant is stressed, essential oils are produced.

Production of essential oils is increased in the summer. The drier, hotter weather in the summer has better conditions for oil production. Not only is the oil produced in higher quantities in the summer, it is also higher quality. The quality of thymol is determined by climate and environmental conditionals like rainfall, sunlight, soil, acidity, altitude & pollination.

How does it get energy?

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