What Keeps the Doctor Away from the Apple?

StomaThere are many elements that Malus domestica needs to develop correctly.  This includes nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and water.  The roots take all of these nutrients up from the soil.  Carbon dioxide is another nutrient apple trees need to absorb.  They get CO2 from the atmosphere through openings in the leaves called stomata.  CO2 is needed to carry out a process called photosynthesis.  Like lemongrass, watermelon, saffron and most other plants, the apple uses photosynthesis to obtain its energy.  Photosynthesis turns light from the sun, CO2 from the atmosphere, and water to a usable source of energy in the form of sugar.  The plant can then store these sugars in the form of starch for later use.  When this plant undergoes photosynthesis, it does not just produce energy for itself, but releases oxygen into the atmosphere.  This is  very important for organisms like humans, which give off CO2 and take in oxygen to survive.  In this regard, plants that photosynthesize and organisms that take in oxygen have an obligate relationship.
There are certain structures of Malus domestica that are important to the plants survival.  There are 2 types of vascular tissue that aid Malus domestica.  The phloem is the tissue that carries sugars from the point of production to the rest of the tree.  The xylem is the tissue that transports water from the point of absorption to the rest of the tree. The xylem is able to move water from the roots to the top of the tree through two actions, the capillary action and root pressure.  The leaves are also a very important structure of Malus domestica.  Leaves allow a large surface area for the absorption of light, one resource needed for photosynthesis.  Another resource needed for photosynthesis is CO2.  CO2 is taken in through small holes on the bottom of leaves, called stomata.  Although most water is absorbed through the roots, leaves can also help in the absorption of water, so it makes sense that the major site of photosynthesis is the leaves.

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