Stayin' Alive

Although most apple trees today are grown in controlled orchards by humans.  Malus domestica has made many adaptations to better survive in its environment.
One adaption that the apple tree has made is the apple itself.  The fruit. A fruit is the mature ovary of a flower and surrounds the seeds to protect it.  Fruits also help with the dispersal of the seed within it. The center of the fruit is arranged into a five-point star.  Each point (carpel) contains one to three seeds.  The sweetness and nutrition of this fruit attracts other organisms to eat it and since the seeds are indigestible, they are then later defecated and distributed. Other examples of plants that utilize fruit include kiwi, pomegranate, and orange trees.
Malus domestica also developed flowers. Flowers are a very important adaption in the life cycle and survival of the plant. Malus domestica flowers produce a sweet tasting nectar that attracts different organisms such as birds or bees that are looking for nutrition.  The organisms, like birds and bees, thatOrchard Mason Bee help carry out the process of pollination are called pollinators. When these organisms come to collect their meal of nectar, they also collect the pollen grains on them from the anthers of the flower.  Then when the organism goes to another tree for seconds, it transfers the pollen grain to the stigma of the flower.
One more important adaptation to Malus domestica is the vascular cambium.  The vascular cambium is the tissue in woody plants that always it to have secondary growth, which is the growth on the x-axis, or width. The vascular cambium forms secondary xylem to the inside and secondary phloem to the outside and is important for strong support of the tree.  The phloem and xylem that the vascular cambium produces are also important for transforming food and water through out the tree.

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