Human Interactions

     C. maculatum has had a few different impacts on humans. Humans are able to

 fuel their own energy demands by utilizing the by-products (water and oxygen)

from the photosynthesis process of this plant. Also, Indians have been known to

 cleverly use the poisonous effects of this plant for their own predation by poisoning

 the tips of arrows. Additionally, there are also a few medical uses that have been

 derived from this plant. Small doses of this plant can act as an anesthetic. It has also

 been reported that Persian and Greek doctors have used this plant's toxins to treat

arthritis back in the day. However, overdoses will cause paralysis, eventual speech

 loss, and death due to respiratory failure.


Lepidoptera Interaction

     C. maculatum serves at the bottom of the food web as a primary producer. As a

 result, other organisms may feed off of this plant series in order to obtain their own

 energy. A few larval forms of the Lepidoptera species have been able to overcome

the toxicity of the plant, using it as a food source. Pictured below is a larval form of

the species Papilio glaucus, which falls under the order Lepidoptera.  Naturally,

 insects can also help to pollinate the plant as they travel from plant to plant, carrying

over pollen grains.

File:Tiger Swallowtail caterpillar.jpg

Virus Interactions

     C. maculatum is prone to a number of viruses such as the celery mosaic, alfalfa

mosaic, ringspot and carrot thin leaf viruses. However, despite the pathogenic

 advance of these viruses, growth of this plant is only stunted. These viruses are not

 adequate enough in destroying the entire plant itself. The globe artichoke is another

 organism that is attacked by the ringspot virus.


Wind & Rain Interactions

     C. maculatum has been able to reproduce due to its interactions with a couple of

 abiotic factors as well.  Wind is major component that aids in the dispersal of this

 organism. Wind can carry seeds to new regions as well as rain. Seeds can be carried

 by water and float on down to ... maybe somewhere near you! The seeds from C.

 maculatum also stick to farm equipment, clothing and other automobiles and have

 been dispersed that way as well.


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