Domain: Eukarya
Supergroup: Archaeplastida
Kingdom: Plantae
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta
Superdivision: Spermatophyta
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Subclass: Liliidae
Order: Liliales
Family: Liliaceae
Genus: Hyacinthus L.
Species: Hyacinthus orientalis L.


  What do Hyacinthus orientalis, a seahorse, and the split-gilled fungus have in common? They're all eukaryotic! Eukarya is one of three domains for organisms (the other two being Prokarya and Archaea). Eukarya is a classification derived from the prokaryotes 1.7 billion years ago. Prokaryotes (from the domain Prokarya) have no membrane-bound organelles, no true nucleus, and are typically bacteria. However, membrane-bound mitochondria and chloroplasts were formed quite differently. According to the Endosymbiotic Theory, proposed by Dr. Lynn Margulis, the mitochondria and the chloroplasts were both originally independent prokaryotes before becoming engulfed by the cell. Over time two organisms have become interdependent, and how the mitochondria (and in plant cells, the chloroplasts) are necessary for proper cell functioning. And, if you want to learn more about other eukaryotes, such as the great seahorse or the split-gilled fungus, check out the pages like this one done about them!

    In case you're interested in learning more about the Endosymbiotic Theory (or the above description confused you), feel free to watch the following video by David Herbst, a science teacher who prefers to demonstrate science to students rather than telling them about it. His video outlines the theory surrounding the differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

If the video isn't loading, here's the URL:

The supergroup Archaeplastida is one of the seven protist supergroups. Members of Archaeplastida are photosynthetic and can be multicellular or unicellular, and many exhibit an alternation of generations (from a single DNA type haploid to two DNA types diploid). Archaeplastida includes two broad groups: the red algae and green algae. Green algae - due to its cellulose cell walls, enzymes in peroxisomes, sperm structure, cell division, and genetic code - is said to be linked to land plants.

Kingdom Plantae, or Virdiplantae, is said to have been derived from the green algae protists (which have varied in their classification, hence the alternate name "Kingdom Virdiplantae"). Members of the kingdom are plants, which serve as primary producers and give off oxygen as a biproduct of photosynthesis (the process by which plants acquire food). Some examples of plantae include the American Mountain Ash and Witchhazel.

CO2 + H2O à C6H12O6 + O2

The chemical formula of photosynthesis: one mole (a given quantity) of carbon dioxide (CO2) reacted with one mole of water (H2O) makes one mole of dextrose (a sugar used for energy, C6H12O6) and one mole of oxygen gas (O2), with the help/input of sunlight.


All three images are of organisms of the Kingdom Plantae (or Virdiplantae). They are also all images taken by yours truly, Libby Jachimiec.  

The subkingdom Tracheobionta refers to vascular plants.

The superdivision Spermatophyta refers to seed-producing plants.

The division Magnoliophyta refers to flowering plants, also known as "Angiosperm." Plants under this division are also known to have true roots, stems, and leaves.    


Above graphic created by me, Libby Jachimiec.

The class Liliopsida is also known as "monocots," or "monocotyledons," meaning that seedlings produce only one leaf. Other characteristics of monocots include parallel leaf venation, petals in multiples of three, scattered vascular tissue inside the stem, a fibrous root system, and a pollen grain with a single opening. To see some other examples of monocots, check out the webpages about ginger or tumeric.
    While one might think that all flowering plants are similar, there are significant distinctions between them. The class Liliopsida, also known as the monocots, is paralleled by the Magnoliopsida, or the dicots. To see some neat examples of dicots, check out the pages for the bloodroot (the webpage done by my friend Ivy), opium poppy, purple passion flower, dragonfruit or pomegranate.

The subclass Liliidae contains nearly 8000 species, approximately half of which belong to the familiy Liliaceae. The organisms belonging to Liliidae typically are pollinated by insects and have well-developed nectaries.

    The order Liliales was once considered the largest group of monocots, but due to molecular and morphological research is now a group containing only 1200 species. Organisms belonging to Liliales grow from bulbs or corms, two forms that can store food during dry seasons or winter months.

The family Liiliaceae includes approximately 4000 living species. As their flowers are known for being particularly showy, they are often used in gardening, though some are also used for food or for their medicinal properties. Another organism belonging to the Liliaceae family is the Autumn crocus, which you can learn more about here (coincidentally, the page for the autumn crocus was completed by my good friend Hannah, so go check it out!).


The genus Hyacinthus L. refers to three species of plants: Hyacinthus litwinovii, Hyacinthus transcaspicus, and Hyacinthus orientalis. The three flowers differ in their characteristics, with Hyacinthis litwinovii and Hyacinthus transcaspicus having the most in common.

    Well! There's a lot to say about Hyacinthus orientalis L.; fortunately for you, there's an entire webpage dedicated to information about it. And fortunately for you (again), you're already on that webpage. That's convenient, right?

To keep learning about Hyacinthus orientalis L., continue on to the habitat page.

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