Antos, J. A. and C. B. Halpern. 1997. Root system differences among species: implications for early successional changes in forest of western oregon. American Midland Naturalist 138: 97-108.

Campbell, N.A., J.B. Reece, L.A. Urry, M.L. Cain, S.A. Wasserman, P.V. Minorsky, and R.B. Jackson. 2008. Biology 8th Ed. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco, California, USA.

Celedón-Neghme, C., Gonzalez, W.L. and Gianoli, E. 2006. Cost and benefits of attractive floral traits in the annual species Madia sativa (Asteraceae). Evoluion Ecology 21: 247-257.

Cooper, C. 2010. Class Magnoliopsida. Discover Life in America.                                               <URL:>.  Accessed 15 March 2014.

Domains and Kingdoms 2004. <URL:>. Accessed 19 March 2014.                                                                                                        

Encyclopedia Britannica 2014. <URL:>.  Accessed 17 March 2014.                                                                                                                                                                                                                    

Encyclopedia Britannica 2014. <URL:>.  Accessed 17 March 201.

Evens, J.M., S. San and J. Taylor. 2004. Vegetation classification and mapping of Peoria wildlife area, south of New Melons Lake, Tuolumne County, California. California Native Plant Society : 116-117.

Jepson Herbacium 2013. <URL:> Accessed 10 March 2014.

Krimmel, B.A. and Pearse, I.S. 2013. Sticky plant traps insects to enhance indirect defense. Ecology Letters 16: 219-224.

Lowry, J. L. 2009. The Sent of Summer. Bay Nature. <URL:>. Accessed 14 March 2014.                                                               

Madia 2006. <URL:>. Accessed 12 March 2014.

Madia gracilis 2013. <URL:>. Accessed 20 March 2014.

National Forage & Grasslands Curriculum 2008.  <URL:  instructormaterials/availabletopics/weeds/lifecycle>. Accessed 25 March 2014.

Order Asterales 2013. <URL:>. Accessed 2 April 2014

Ross, T.C. 2012. Plant guide for grassy tarweed (Madia gracilis). USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service, Plant Materials Center, Corvallis, OR. December 2012.

Sonoma 2013. <URL:>. Accessed 13 March 2014.

Takhajan, A. 2009. Flowering Plants 2nd Ed. Springer Books, New York, New York, USA.

Tarweeds 2000. <URL:>. Accessed 21 March 2014.

The Calflora Database 2014. <URL:>. Accessed 12 March 2014.

Return Home, or Contact Us