Haines, T. 2001. Walking with Beasts: A prehistoric safari. DK Publishing Inc., New York, New York, USA

Lewis, G. E. 1944. Guy E. Pilgrim, 1875-1943 (obituary biography). American Journal of Science 242:105-106.

Osborn, H. F. 1929. the titanotheres of ancient Wyoming, Nebraska, and South Dakota. U.S. Geological Survey Monograph 55:1-953 (2 vols.)

Prothero, D. R. 2013. Rhinoceros Giants: The paleobiology of indricotheres. Indiana University Press, Bloomington and    Indianapolis, Indiana, USA

Prothero, D., C. M. In Janis, K. M. Scott, L. L. Jacobs. 1998. Rhinocerotidae. Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America. Volume 1: Terrestrial Carnivores, Ungulates, and Ungulatelike Mammals. Cambridge University Press. Accessed 24 April 2014.

Sander, P.M., A. Christian, M. Clauss, M. Fechner, C.T. Gee, E.-M. Griebeler, H.-C. Gunga, J. Hummel, H Mallison, St. F. Perry, H. Preuschoft, O. W. M. Rauhut, C. Remes, T. Thutken, O. Wings, and U. Witzel. 2011. Biology of the sauropod dinosaurs: the evolution of gigantism. Biological Reviews 86:117-155.