How does this organism reproduce?

How do most animals produce?

During sexual reproduction among animals, there is a fusion of two haploid gametes from each parent, which come together to form a zygote (diploid cell). After this process, the cells replicate and mature through mitosis.  Mitosis will give rise to an adult animal.  Then, this animal now has to ability to sexually reproduce, with another animal in their species by using half of their gametic cells. Thus starting the process over again (Campbell 2008).

Specifically, how does Speleomantes strinatii reproduce?

Photographed by Emanuele Biggi from Arkive.orgSalamanders usually partake in seasonal mating (Reptiles of amphibians de France 2004).  Speleomantes strinatti commonly mate in the spring. The male initiates sexual reproduction by touching and smelling another salamander to determine that salamander’s sex. If he finds a female, he places himself in front of her and deposits a spermatophore. The female then intakes the sperm for internal fertilization. During this action, the male moves his place back and forth similar to a dance (Reptiles of amphibians de France 2004). Females are usually slightly larger than males (Salvidio and Bruce 2006). Salamanders’ reproduce sexually in moist environments (Reptiles & amplibiens de France 2004).  Most gravid or pregnant females are found in the fall (Salvidio et al. 1992). These eggs are about 5 to 6 mm in diameter and are laid individually of each other (Salvidio et al. 1992).  A clutch contains about 6-14 eggs (Salvidio et al. 1992). These eggs are usually laid on moist rocks in between small cracks of the terrain (Salvidio et al. 1992).  They have a white/ivory color. (Zug et al. 2001). The juvenile salamanders are about 20 mm long, although they will eventually grow to be 115 mm to 130 mm long (Zug et al. 2001).

The photo above was photographed by Emanuele Biggi from  This is a photo of an female Speleomantes strinatii watching over her eggs.

Do these salamanders continue to nurture their young after they are hatched?

Photographed by Emanuele Biggi from Arkive.orgDuring my research on the reproduction characteristics of Speleomantes strinatii, I found an experimental case study examining the parental care of salamanders. This experimental research was conducted by Fabrizio Oneto, Dario Ottonello, Mauro Valerio Pastorino, and Sebastiano Salvidio (2010).  The test subject for this experiment was Speleomantes strinatii. Before this experiment, there was an absence of evidence of post-hatching parental care among salamanders. This trait is also observed among other amphibians such as frogs and caecilians. The basic method of their experiment was to use an infrared camera to observe the pregnancy and hatching stages of Speleomantes strinatii. This experiment spanned from egg deposition until birth site abandonment. The conditions of this experiment were semi natural and completely dark. The results of this experiment show great significance in the reproduction of salamanders. The results showed that female salamanders lay multiple eggs in concaved, moist areas of the salamanders’ preferred terrain. The female salamander was observed showing anti-predator behaviors towards multiple organisms near the birthing site. During the brooding stage, the female spent the majority of her time with the clutch rather than going out to look for food.  Once two of her eggs hatched, the juveniles remained in the birthing site with her for six weeks. During these six weeks, the young were observed climbing onto the mother salamanders’ body, laying on her for hours at a time (Oneto et al. 2010).

The photo above was photographed by Emanuele Biggi from  This is a photo of a female Speleomantes strinatii watching over her young offspring, which can be found on her backside.


Wow!  There are many parts to this organisms life cycle!  Explore the next page which includes information on what organisms interact with this species.

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