*Benthos: Organisms that live along the substrate underlying seas and lakes. Also the submerged substrate itself.

*Cercariae: Reproduced asexually by rediae, they emerge from the snail and penetrate a second intermediate host or encyst on vegetation to become metacercariae (juvenile flukes).

*Flukes: Parasites from the Class Monogenea or Trematoda that can effect humans and other species. They act as an intermediate host to diseases such as Oriental Live Fluke (Clonorchis sinesis) and Blood Fluke (Schistosoma).

*Radula: A rasping, protrusible, tonguelike organ found in all molluscs except bivalves and some gastropods. It is a ribbonlike membrane on which are mounted rows of tiny chitonous teeth. They can be used to scrape, pierce, tear or cut particles of food.

*Sinistral: Pertaining to the left side, or coiling counterclockwise.

*Umbilicus: A hole or depression that is found at the center of some gastropod shell whorl.
(Hickman 2009)


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