Reproduction/Life History

Adult Tipula submaculata lay slender eggs  in a moist environment  normally near open water. Generally in the spring, the eggs hatch  into a larval form. The  larvae a of Tipula are generally known as a ‘leatherjackets’ because of their tough outer layer (O’Toole 2002). Some  species are  known pests  of grasses, rangelands, rice fields, and golf courses. After a larval stage,  Tipula submaculata  grow into the adult flying stage which lasts  anywhere from 10 to 15 days.  The main goal  of the adult stage is mating and laying eggs (Red Planet Inc. 2012).   

 Life Cycle                                                                                                         Crane Fly Larvae
Tipula Submaculata and the marsh crane fly are very comparable, sharing the same Genus Tipula. The close relationship of the two species allows for a comparison of lifestyle and reproductive behaviors. The marsh crane fly completes one life generation per year. Adults are found abundantly in late August and early September. The eggs that are laid by the females are black and shiny. Each female will lay their eggs on the soil surface and can lay up to 280 eggs. The eggs will hatch 11-15 days from when they are laid. Larvae remain in the soil during fall and winter. They then grow rapidly in spring and reach their full length, about 40mm, by May. The larvae will then enter the pupa stage in July. Pupae will then remain underground for 2 weeks as they head for the surface. The adult then emerges from the pupal case after sunset and immediately mates. The males live for about 7 days while the females live 4 to 5 days (Arthur and Garrison 2004).

       Crane Fly larva terminal segment

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