·         Parthenogenesis

   o   Females are able to lay fertile eggs without the help of males.

·         Direct Development

   o   Eggs hatch into nymphs which look like a small version of the adult (Scudder 1901).

·         Sex Ratio

   o   Females greatly outnumber males. If one was lucky enough to spot a male, it would be much shorter than a female.

·         Eggs

   o   Each one is very hard and has a lid that is either eaten by an ant or removed during hatching process.

   o   Females lay before winter, scattering the forest floor. Eggs hatch in the spring (Swan 1972).

Figure 5. Large female (left) and developing juveniles (right). Eggs displayed throughout.