Viened Octopus used with permission- Octopus using a coconut shell as protection used with permission-


       In general, octopuses are solitary creatures that interact seasonally to breed. These interactions seem to have no distinct pattern which creates the idea that these creatures breed based on if the opportunity presents itself. Amphioctopus marginatus along with the other octopus species reproduce sexually through internal fertilization. The males possess a specialized tentacle that is used to transport the sperm during sexual reproduction (Sreeja and Bijukumar 2013). In order for a successful reproductive cycle, the eggs must be laid in a safe location. Octopi generally inhabit a den or hole in which they consider home and more importantly use to protect the fertilized eggs. Upon fertilization, the female will generate these clusters of eggs called festoons and attaches these clusters to rocks along with other surfaces inside the den and then the female goes into a period of incubation (Sreeja and Bijukumar 2013).  Coconut Octopus used with permission-

      In V. Sreeja and A. Bijukumar’s ethological study of the Veined Octopus (Amphioctopus marginatus) they reported the octopi attaching these egg clusters on the inside of the coconuts that they also use as a portable-protective shelter (Sreeja and Bijukumar 2013).  When one of the octopi in the study was examined V. Sreeja  and A. Bijukumar found 22 festoons cemented to the coconut carried around by the octopus, with a total of around 20,000 eggs (Sreeja and Bijukumar 2013). When the fertilized eggs are laid and attached to coconut, the octopi begin the brooding period, which is another term for the incubation of the eggs. During incubation the female octopus becomes extremely active and protective to ensure the safety of the eggs, removing anything that threatens her spawn (Sreeja and Bijukumar 2013). The female displays this behavior until the eggs have hatched. It is also important to note that often times during this incubation period the female can starve and die before the eggs hatch; because she spends little time foraging for food. In their study, V. Sreeja and A. Bijukumar witnessed hatchlings on the 16th day of fertilization and determined that the hatchlings were said to resemble the general body shape of an adult octopus (Sreeja and Bijukumar 2013). The hatchlings observed were said to be planktonic in nature which can help explain the wide distribution that the Amphioctopus marginatus displays. These planktonic young are able to survive for a while before entering the later developmental stages, which allows for a lot of time for dispersal through ocean currents.

   Part of an egg festoon used with permission- hatched out from the egg on the 16th day used with permission-









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