Campbell, N.A., Reece, J.B., Urry, L.A., Cain, M.L., Wasserman, S.A., Minorsky, P.V., Jackson, R.B. 2008. Biology. 8th Ed. Pearson Education Inc, New York. 537-538.

Elphick, C., Dunning, Jr., J.B. and Sibley, D.A. 2001. The Sibley guide to bird life and behavior. Alfred A. Knopf. New York.

Hutchins, M., Jackson, J.A., Bock, W.J., and Olendorf, D., Eds. 2002. Grzimek's Animal Encyclopedia: Volumes 8-11: Birds I-IV. 2nd Ed. Auks, Puffins, and Murres. Gale Group, Farmington Hills, MI.

ITIS. Retrieved 4-01-09.

Sale, R. 2006. A complete guide to arctic wildlife. Firefly Books, Buffalo, New York, US.

The New Encyclopedia Britannica: Volume 1: Micropaedia Ready Reference. 15th Ed. 2007. Auk. Encyclopedia Britannica Inc, Chicago.

Special thanks to Dave Mansell for the excellent photographs of the Auk predation.


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