CommunicationKnoth, M. “Coyotes”. (image).  <>  Accessed 6 April 2009.

Coyotes are the most vocal of the wild canines, with a complex combination of barks, yips and howls that they use to communicate on a daily basis.  Eleven different forms of vocalization have been identified, but much more study of this is required to determine the precise meanings of these sounds.

Knoth, M. “Sundown”. (image) <>  Accessed 6 April 2009.Mother coyotes have been known to signal to their pups with calls that indicate danger, dinner or other more complex feelings.  Their very distinct yip-howl is used primarily to keep pack members in communication when they are separated, but it has also been heard simply as a means of expressing some deeper feelings of the animal.  Many authors and coyote enthusiasts describe the howl of the coyote and one of the truest wild sounds to be heard.  Barking is used more often as a warning to other coyotes that are approaching territory borders.  Coyotes have also been observed to communicate through their gait, their posture, and the position of their tail.  These can all be indicators of mood and overall health of the animal.