Canis latrans has been divided into nineteen subspecies, based mostly on their size and location.  These subspecies are:

Canis latrans latrans – found in southern half of Saskatchewan and the southeastern corner of Alberta and as far south as eastern Colorado, the northern tip of the Texas panhandle and western Oklahoma.  They are distinguished as smaller than most other coyotes, and as the lightest in coloring of the identified subspecies.

Canis latrans incolatus – found in the central parts of Alberta and Saskatchewan in Canada, and north to all of Alaska.  Although their range overlaps that of several other subspecies, they have clear di
ferences in cranial measurement when compared with their neighbors.

Canis latrans thamnos – inhabits the Great Lakes region and is distinguished by its much larger teeth.  This subspecies was rarely seen when wolves still populated this region, as competition for food and territories was fierce.  They cover most of the north-central United States, with their range extending as far north as northern Saskatchewan and as far east as western New York.

Canis latrans frustor – is found in the southeastern United States and is identified as the largest of all coyote subspecies.  It is hypothesized that their greater size is a result of interbreeding with the red wolf, which also inhabits this region.  Its rich red-brown coloring also support this idea.

Canis latrans texensis – is found in eastern New Mexico and the western two-thirds of Texas.  They are a medium sized coyote that is seen as one of the most adaptable of the subspecies.

Canis latrans lestes – inhabits the most Northwestern states and as far north as southern Alaska.  It is commonly called the “mountain coyote”, whose extreme color variation is likely a result of differences in diet and altitude rather than intense speciation.

Canis latrans umpquensis – occupies the most coastal regions of Oregon and Washington state, and is characterized by a much darker, almost black coat.

Canis latrans ochrupus, Canis latrans clepticus, and Canis latrans peninsulae – inhabit the state of California as far south as Baja and into Mexico.  They are considered coyotes of medium size and are almost completely indistinguishable from each other aside from slight variations in habitat.

Canis latrans mearnsi – inhabits all of Arizona and parts of Utah, Nevada, New Mexico in the United States, and Chihuahua and Sonora in Mexico.  This subspecies is the second smallest of the coyotes with correspondingly smaller dentition.

Canis latrans jamesi – makes its home on the island of Tiburon, and is known to be a very strong swimmer.  Other than this though, it differs very little from its closest mainland neighbors.

Canis latrans microdon – occupies a very small region in northern Mexico and southern Texas.  It is the smallest of all coyote subspecies.

Canis latrans inpavidus, Canis latrans cagottis, Canis latrans vigilis, Canis latrans goldmani, Canis latrans hondurensis, and Canis latrans dickeyi  - are the coyotes of Mexico and Central America. It has been strongly argued that these should all be considered the same subspecies due to insufficient numbers of organisms studied.