Adaptations and Interactions


Fusarium circinatum is a wound pathogen. It enters a tree through a wound. Natural wounds may be caused by hail, wind, or animals. Insects, such as tree-boring beetles, often carry the fungus. This disease is also seed-borne, soil-borne, wind-borne, and insect-borne.

Monterey pine showing affects of pine pitch canker


The fungus is supposed to have originated in Mexico before spreading to southeastern U.S. and then moving toward the west. To learn more about how Monterey pines are affected, go to this website that is dedicated to explaining pine pitch cankers.



Fusarium circinatum causes harm to the tree host that it infects. It does not provide anything for the tree either. The fungus can be carried by insects, such as beetles. As of now, there is no known negative or positive affect to these insects. This would lead to the presumption of a commensal relationship between the fungus and the beetle.



The fungus does not directly affect humans; however, the infections of the tree are decreasing the amount of Monterey pines as well as other trees that are affected. This causes the pine industries to be negatively affected and businesses are losing money.