Amanita bisporigera "The Destroying Angel" - BIO203


Antonyuka VO.,  Klyuchivskaa OY., Stoika RS. Cytotoxic proteins of Amanita virosa Secr. mushroom: Purification, characteristics and action towards mammalian cells. Toxicon. 55. pp. 1297-1305.

Bruns T. 2006. Evolutionary Biology: A kingdom revised. Nature. 43. pp. 758-761.

Bonnet MS.,  Basson PW. 2004. The toxicology of Amanita Virosa : the destroying angel. Homeopathy. 93.  pp. 216-220.

Chen L., Oberlies NH.  2005. The most widely recognized mushroom: Chemistry of the genus Amanita. Life Sciences. 78. pp.  532-538.

McLaughlin DJ., Hibbet DS.,  Lutzoni F., Spatafora JW., Vilgalys R. 2009. The search for the fungal tree of life. Trends in Microbiology.  pp.488-497.

Missouri Department of Agriculture. 2013. Amanitas.<URL:>  . Accessed 7 April 2013.

Pinson CW., Daya MR.,  Benner KG.,  Norton RL., Deveney KE.,  Kurkchubasche AG., Ragsdale JW.,  Alexander JP., Keeffe EB.,  Ascher NL.,  Roberts JP.,   Lake JR. 1990. Liver transplantation for severe Amanita phalloides mushroom poisoning. The American Journal of Surgery. 159. pp. 493-499.

Purschwitz J., Müller S., Kastner C., Fischer R. 2006. Current Opinion in Microbiology. 9. pp. 566-571.

Steinberg G. 2007. Hyphal Growth: a Tale of Motors, Lipids, and the Spitzenkörper. Eukaryotic Cell. 6. pp 351-360.

Swann E., Hibbet DS. 2007. Basidiomycota.<URL:> . Accessed 6 April 2013.

Symbiosis: Mycorrhizae and Lichens. <URL:>. Accessed 7 April 2013.

Tulloss RE. 2013. Amanita virosa. <URL: >. Accessed  6 March, 2013.

Volk TJ. 1997. Tom Volk’s Fungus of the Month for September 1997.<URL:> . Accessed 6 March 2013.

University of Sydney. 2004. Translocation and Storage of Carbon in the Fungal Thallus. <URL:>.  Accessed 6 April 2013.

Additional Resources

Tom Volk's Fungi Website

AFTOL Website ( Assembling the Fungal Tree of Life)

Mushroom Observer (This website is a way for people to post different pictures of mushrooms and fungi they have seen and collected on the web for others to view.)

Tom Volk's collection of pictures of different fungi.

University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse Department of Biology