Photography by Tom Volk


Kali Fleischauer 2013.

Domain - Eukarya
Each cell of Galerina autumnalis contains membrane-bound organelles, DNA in chromosomes  enveloped within a nucleus, and produces cells through means of mitosis. These characteristics are all qualities that are found in Eukarya. Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy), is also an example of a Eukarya. Click here to read about poison ivy!

Kingdom -Fungi
Fungi are a kingdom within the Eukarya which possess cell walls constructed from chitin, unlike plant cell walls composed of cellulose. Spores are produced commonly in methods of reproduction for fungi. Rhizopus stolonifer (Black bread mold) is also a member of the fungi kingdom.

Phylum - Basidiomycota
This phylum contains mushrooms, puffballs, bracket fungi, stinkhorns, and more. This phylum contains organisms with the general structures of a mushroom such as the cap, gills, and stipe. In means of sexual reproduction, basidiomycota have basidia found on the outermost layer of cells that make up the gills. These basidia produce haploid basidiospores. This method of reproduction is specific to this phylum and contributes to the phylum's name. To learn more about the reproductive life cycle of Galerina autumnalis check out the reproduction page. Lepiota josserandii  (The Deadly Parasol) also belongs to this phylum. Click here to learn more about the Deadly Parasol.

Class - Agaricomycetes
This class is known to contain one of the oldest and largest basidiomycota.  This mushroom is known as Armillaria gallica. Click here to learn more about the relationship between Armillaria gallica and Galerina autumnalis. A large portion of this class are said to be wood-decaying or ectomycorrhizal symbionts with animals or plants. Examples of agaricomycetes can be found throughout terrestrial environments. Agaricus bisporus (Button Mushroom),the mushroom that is commonly found on pizza, is in this class as well.

Order - Agaricales
A main characteristic of agaricales is a fleshy-like exterior along with the structures such as the stalk, cap, and gills. The basidiospores in this order are typically dispersed by wind once they fall from between the gills. Cantharellus cibarius (Chanterelle mushroom) is also a member of this order.

Family - Strophariaceae
These gilled mushrooms have spores which are generally brown in color. Most members have mycorrhizal mutualism with plant roots. Most of this family contains a toxin of some sort and as a result people are advised to not consume this family of fungi. Gymnopilus spectabilis is a member of this family who shares a similar cap color with Galerina autumnalis.

Genus - Galerina
Most of this genus are found in temperate regions. Go to the habitat page to further read about the  Galerina autumnalis habitat. Generally, Galerina is found in association with moss along with being a decomposer of wood. This genus is polyphyletic meaning it descends from more than one recent ancestor. A greater sense of diversity is found within this genus as a result. Click here to further investigate some facts about Galerina autumnalis and other members of the genus.

Species - Galerina autumnalis*
This species is significant because it is commonly found on the ground growing over buried, decaying wood around early spring and late fall. The Latin word autumnalis refers to the mushroom blooming in the fall. It has received the common name Deadly Galerina in result of the increasing knowledge of G. autumnalis's deadly effects.

Kali Fleischauer 2013.

This phylogenetic tree is based off of genetic similarities. The examples are said to share at least one protein sequence in common with the ones they are attached to. The red names are the route in which Galerina autumnalis classification takes in this image of classification. The other names involved are examples of what else are found in the classification. This is done to provide a better understanding of other examples that can be found in the classifications.
From left to right the tree shows the domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species of Galerina autumnalis.


This tree to the right is an explanation of  the genera and species found within the family of strophariaceae. G. autumnalis is found under the genus of Galerina along with other species under their corresponding genus.



*NOTE* After a study in 2001, it has been documented that Galerina autumnalis and Galerina marginata along with a few other members of the genus are genetically the same species (Gulden, 2001). The names of the mushroom are interchangeable.

Kali Fleischauer 2013. 


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